Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS)

Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) by definition is the instrumentation installed in a facility for the purpose of taking the process or specific piece of equipment in the process to a safe state.  The SIS is designed to respond to plant emergency situations and generate the correct output before a hazardous event takes place.

The SIS requires planning and is designed to the particular characteristics of the facility.  SIS is designed to integrate plant shutdown systems such as the Emergency Shutdown Devices (ESD) and Plant Shutdown Devices (PSD) systems.  Once the SIS requirements are determined, the appropriate technology is chosen and the SIS is installed and tested for functionality and operability. Once the facility is operating, the SIS must be maintained and checked at regular intervals.

This course has been designed to introduce participants to the design considerations and expose them to relevant information needed to properly select an SIS.  Participants will also an understanding of the process involve in choosing the technology that best fits to the plant as well as installation, testing and managing of the SIS.

1

Safety Instrumented Systems

  • Introductory
  • Design considerations
  • Protection layers
  • Safety integrity levels

On day one, participants will learn about the fundamentals of the SIS.  They will be exposed to the design considerations which involve life cycle and hazard and risk analysis.  They will gain knowledge in determining the protection layers which give the overall protection available from operating the process to emergency response.  Discussions on this day also include safety integrity and the level needed to meet the possible risks in the operating environment.

2

Safety Instrumented System Technology

  • Choosing a technology
  • SIS evaluation
  • Hardware
  • Control & safety systems integration

The focus of this day starts with the types of SIS that are available and which one best suits specific operations.  The participants will learn about the initial evaluation of the SIS once the technology has been selected and they will gain knowledge on the importance of selecting the proper hardware for the selected technology.  Discussions include precautions that must be considered in the integration of the control and safety systems.

3

ESD and PSD Systems

  • Introduction
  • Permissives and interlocks
  • ESD & PSD alarm systems
  • Redundancy
  • Testing, resetting and bypassing

On day three, participants will be made aware of the relationship between the SIS and the ESD & PSD system.  They will gain knowledge in permissives and interlocks which are the logic used in ensuring the safe shutdown of a plant. They will also be made aware of the characteristics of the ESD & PSD alarms and their difference compared to non-critical alarms. The participants will gain knowledge in maintaining reliability through redundancy and procedures relating to testing, resetting and bypassing the ESD & PSD system.

4

Safety Instrumented System Testing and Installation

  • Installing the SIS
  • Initial Testing
  • Functional Testing
  • SIS Checklist
  • Managing the SIS

The course concludes with discussions on the requirements for installing the SIS.  Participants will gain knowledge in the initial factory and site testing as well as functional testing once the SIS is installed. Participants will also learn what is involved in managing the SIS during normal operation.

Information Security for Industrial Systems

Oil and gas products play an important role in every economy in which they operate.   As such, security has always been and continues to be a priority across the oil and gas industry.  The petroleum industry can be subject to multiple threats. 

Organizations operating in the oil and gas sector face enormous challenges related to security concerns.  These concerns include potential risks with the products they produce, store, and transport.   At the same time, they face serious and growing risks from cyber-attacks, malicious software, and other threats against their IT infrastructure and intellectual property.

This course is aimed at providing its participants with an awareness of security risks and effective management issues associated with today’s oil and gas industry.

1

Oil And Gas Critical Infrastructures

  • Sector vulnerabilities and security risks
  • Fundamentals of upstream security
  • Elements of a secure oil and gas infrastructure

During the first day, participants will gain an understanding of the security issues found in today’s oil and gas industry.  The requirements and challenges of modern security systems will be reviewed to provide an awareness of the risks and mitigation measures utilized.  The essential elements required to ensure a secure infrastructure will also be addressed.

2

Security Solutions in Oil and Gas

  • Secure operating systems
  • Data and network access protection
  • Security audits

On day two, security associated with operating systems in the oil and gas industry will be addressed, while paying particular attention to data and intellectual property protection.  The elements and role of security audits will be reviewed.  Case studies will be used to enforce the topics covered.

3

Security Risk Management

  • Oil and gas safety management issues
  • Best practices in security management
  • Training and awareness 

On the last day, management and best practices of security risk management and issues will be addressed. Roles of industry, government, and non-government security organizations will be reviewed. The importance of continuous training and awareness of security issues, as well as the role for employee and management will also be covered.

Process Analyzers

With the advancement in computer applications and electronics, analyzers have gained popularity in recent years.  They have taken the spot sampling capability of a laboratory and converted into a continuous sampling system.  With continuous sampling, the process variable is being analyzed on a continuous basis with a much faster update time.  Faster update time has given the analyzer the ability to be used for control purposes.

In this three day course participants will learn about the purpose of analyzer systems, how they are selected, and their installation and maintenance.  They will learn about how a sample is conditioned so the analyzer will give a representative reading of the component that is of interest in the process.  Time will also be spent on the main types of analyzers that are commonly used in industry.

Upon completion of this course, participants should have a better understanding of the operation of a process analyzer allowing each technician develop confidence and increasing their efficiency.  The knowledge participants gained from this course will be further expanded by on-job training and practical experience they will receive throughout the duration of their career.

1

Analyzer Selection

  • Introduction to analyzer systems
  • Selecting analyzer systems
  • Analyzers sensors
  • Installing and maintaining analyzer systems

On day one, participants will be provided with an introduction to analyzer systems and why their continuous measurement has changed the efficiency of process control.  They will learn of the importance of choosing the proper analyzer as well as the type of analyzer sensor that is to be used. Time will also be spent on the special installation and maintenance procedures and requirements.

2

Sample Conditioning Systems

  • Analyzer sampling systems
  • Components of an analyzer sampling system
  • Physical limitations of a sampling system
  • Characteristics of analyzer sampling systems

On day two, participants will learn about the components of the analyzer system and the characteristics of the sample conditioning required.  They will also become familiar with the requirements of the sample conditioning systems which prepare the sample to be properly measured by the analyzer.  This part of the course stresses the importance of maintaining the physical and chemical characteristics of the sample.

3

Types of analyzers

  • Conductivity and pH
  • Optical analyzers
  • Combustion analyzers
  • Gas chromatography

On day three, participants will learn about the most common analyzers used in industry, the applications in which they are used and the impact they have on operating the process.  They will learn about the type of measuring principles used in each type of analyzers and the installation and maintenance of the analyzers.

Control System Cabling

Instrumentation and control equipment can only operate properly if it is properly connected to meet the power and safety requirements to operate in industry.  Wiring and cables come in a variety of specifications to meet the needs of industry.  Cables must be properly specified for each type of application and consideration must be given to the electrical and environmental conditions to which the cabling and wiring will be exposed.  Technician must be familiar with the wiring and cabling standards as well as proper procedures specified by the manufacturer when connecting simple and complex instrumentation and control system components.

This course has been designed to cover the basic characteristics of wiring and cabling used in the instrumentation and control industry.  Participants will learn about their construction, electrical characteristics and available accessories as well as common installation and testing techniques.

Upon completion of this course, participants will have a better understanding of instrumentation and control cabling and wiring standards used in the instrumentation field.  The information gained from this course will be used to enhance and expand a technician’s knowledge base through on-the-job training and practical experience at the plant site.

1

Cable Characteristics

  • Conductors, insulators and jacket materials
  • Shields and armor
  • Cable selection criteria
  • Electrical characteristics
  • Cable Installation, testing and accessories

On day one, participants will learn about the basic characteristics of cables including conductor types, insulations, shields and armor.  They will also gain knowledge in the cable selection requirements for a given application. The participants will learn about installation and testing requirements and the various accessories that are available to increase the flexibility of the cabling system.

 

2

Cable Specifications and Industry Standards

  • Control and instrumentation cable standards
  • General wiring practices
  • Hazardous area wiring practices
  • Instrumentation and control system wiring

The second day starts with participants being exposed to applicable control and instrumentation cable standards.  Installation of wire and cables requires following specific guidelines, participants will learn the proper installation methods for general and hazardous areas.  Once the general wiring practices have been covered, the course concludes with discussions of wiring practices used in instrumentation and control system from the basic single loop to the various analog and digital cable connections associated with DCS and PLC control systems.

Hydraulic Control Panel

The oil and gas plant controls its oil or gas well through a Wellhead Control Panel (WHCP).  Each well is always equipped with Surface Controlled Sub-surface Safety Valves(SCSSV) or usually it is called as Down Hole Valve (DHV) and  Surface Safety Valves (SSV) which consist of a Master Valves (MV) and Wing Valves (WV).  SCSSV in most application is an on-off valve with hydraulic actuators.  While SSV can be driven by hydraulic actuator or pneumatic actuator depending on the pressure rating. There is also a need to open or close SCSSV and SSV in sequence and accommodate an Emergency Shutdown signal from the systems.

WHCP systems usually consist of hydraulic reservoir, strainer, hydraulic pumps, accumulator, wellhead control module, and hydraulic lines.  Any other parts, except wellhead control module, are housed in a basic cabinet.  Each control module is built up dedicated for one well only. Therefore, if there are five wells in a wellhead platform, then there will be one basic cabinet and five wellhead control modules.

This course provides the necessary knowledge for the participants to become familiar with the principles of oil well hydraulic control panels. Routine, emergency operation, and associated features will be examined while stressing process, safety, and environmental compliance and concerns.  Case studies will be utilized to reinforce the material covered.

1

Wellhead Valves

  • Types, construction, and operation
  • Hydraulic panel connections to the wellhead
  • Single and multiple wellhead panels

On day one, participants will gain a thorough understanding of the types, purpose, construction and operation of wellhead valves as found in today’s oil and gas industry.  Proper hydraulic panel connection for single and multiple wells will be discussed. Routine, emergency operation, and associated features will be examined while stressing process, safety, and environmental compliance and concerns.

2

Wellhead Panel Hydraulic Systems

  • Supply systems and components
  • Wellhead control instrumentation
  • Hydraulic control system

On day two, participants will gain an understanding of wellhead hydraulic systems, their components, and control system.  Process flow and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID’s) will be reviewed prior to covering the hydraulic control system operation for normal and emergency situations.  Process, safety, and environmental compliance will also be stressed.

3

Hydraulic Wellhead Control Panel

  • Hydraulic switches, valves, and pressure monitoring
  • Disassembly and assembly of a hydraulic unit
  • Operation, maintenance, and testing of a hydraulic unit

On the last day, participants will gain a thorough understanding of the system components, assembly, disassembly, and testing to ensure proper operation.  Testing procedures of the unit to ensure that it is operating properly after repair will also be reviewed.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

The Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a means of monitoring and controlling a process. The PLC is a specialized computer that is used for the overall control and operation of processes.  It uses a programmable memory to store instructions and execute specific functions that include on/off control, timing, counting, sequencing, arithmetic and data handling.

It is designed to operate in an industrial environment and its original purpose was to replace hardwired relays.  With the development of modern electronics the PLC has increased in reliability and flexibility all at a lower cost and has become a workhorse in the oil and gas industry today.

In this course the participants will learn about PLC hardware and how each piece of the PLC contributes to its overall operation and reliability.  Discussions will cover the different numbering systems which form the basis of digital control logic as well as the various types of programming and options available in building a control program.  The course will close with coverage of how to properly install, maintain and troubleshoot the PLC.  Safety is included and will be stressed throughout this course.

1

PLC Hardware and Numbering Systems

  • Overview
  • Hardware components
  • Numbering systems
  • Fundamentals of logic

Participants will be given an overview of the development of the PLC on the first day.  They will become familiar with the generic hardware found in all PLCs.  Since PLCs work on binary numbers in one form or another the participants will learn the applicable numerical systems used in PLCs.  The PLC works on gate logic which accepts inputs and makes a logical decision in determining the output so participants will be exposed to the various types of gate logic and where they are best used.

2

PLC Programming

  • Basics of programming
  • Ladder logic programs
  • Gate logic
  • Timers and counters
  • Sequencers and shift registers

On day two, the focus turns to fundamentals of programming PLC’s.  Participants will gain knowledge in building ladder logic programs using gate logic.  Specific functions such as timers, counters, sequencers and shift registers will also be covered.

3

PLC Installation and Troubleshooting

  • Enclosures
  • Grounding
  • Voltage supplies
  • Program editing
  • Preventative maintenance/troubleshooting

On the final day of the course, participants will learn about the proper installation, PLC grounding and voltage supplies.  They will also gain valuable knowledge in troubleshooting techniques used in PLCs.  Participants will also learn how to enter the program at strategic places to solve programming problems.  Education in preventative maintenance procedures and techniques will also be made available to the participants.

Instrument Fieldbus Control

As the demand for making control systems more efficient and capable of handling increasingly complex process problems grows, new technology has been developed to improve and expand the capabilities of the process control systems.

The foundation fieldbus system has taken the distributed control system and further de-centralized it to make it more independent and reliable.  It has changed the way communication between measuring and controlling devices has been traditionally managed.  It has also expanded the interoperability between control systems made by different manufacturers.

This course will cover the development of the foundation fieldbus system, as well as the improvements it offers relative to distributed control, availability, and reliability.  Discussions will revolve around the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of the foundation fieldbus, as well as issues around integration and migration.  Finally, topics such as installation, commissioning and communication networks as well as safety features will be introduced.

1

Foundation Fieldbus Systems

  • Introduction
  • Benefits of foundation fieldbus
  • Configuration
  • Operation
  • Maintenance and troubleshooting

On the first day, participants will learn about the reason foundation fieldbus was developed and the benefits it can bring to an operation.   Participants will gain knowledge in the installation, commissioning, and configuration of foundation fieldbus systems.  They will also learn about the required maintenance and troubleshooting techniques.

2

Foundation Fieldbus Installation and Communication

  • Integration and migration
  • Installation and commissioning
  • Digital communication networks
  • Communication topologies
  • Availability and safety

On day two, participants will learn about the challenges of integrating and migrating of a foundation fieldbus system. They will also learn about installation and commissioning techniques.  Since the fieldbus system is made up of many parts that talk to one another, the participants will learn about the different types of communication used to connect the fieldbus system.  The participants will be made aware of how the foundation fieldbus makes a system safer and more reliable.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System

The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system has been introduced to allow control of plants in isolated areas where it is not practical to run physical wiring.  This reduces the need for an operator to be stationed in an isolated area for long periods of time. The heart of the SCADA system is its ability to gather information and provide two-way communication over long distances through wireless technology to a central control room.  The course will cover the benefits of SCADA systems and how they impact real time control remotely.

As the course progresses, participants will gain knowledge covering the hardware of the SCADA system - sensors, actuators and wiring used as well as interfaces used to monitor the process and its economic benefits. 

Upon completion of the course, participants will be made aware of topics such as real time control, hardwired and wireless communication methods used in the SCADA system and the limitations of the SCADA systems.  This course will allow each technician, with further on-job training and experience to be able to attend more advanced training and enhance their capabilities, knowledge and skills. 

1

SCADA Overview

  • Introduction
  • Master & remote terminals
  • Sensors, actuators and wiring
  • Operator interface
  • SCADA economics

On day one, participants will learn about the development of the SCADA system and how it operates as a two way system.  Discussions will focus on the hardware of the SCADA system and the interface available for use by the operator.  Economic benefits of the SCADA system will also be covered.

 

2

SCADA Communications

  • Real time systems
  • SCADA communications
  • Communication system components
  • Radio and satellite communication
  • Limitations of SCADA

Participants will learn about the importance of reliable communication to operate the SCADA system in real time On day two.  They will learn about what is meant by real time control and dealing with time delay in the SCADA system.  Discussion will continue with the types of communication systems used in the SCADA system and its dependence on wireless systems such as radio and satellite communication. As with all systems, limitations exist.  The participants will learn what types of measurement and control should not be used with SCADA systems.

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

At one time, taking the thousands of pieces of information in a plant and displaying it on some kind of information system was a real challenge and in fact, impossible.  With the development of Distributed Control Systems (DCS) it is now easy to take all the information and organize it in a hierarchical system.

DCS displays information on a computer and allows process operators to run the process, making the process information available to other people in the plant.  Once the DCS converts the process information to personal computer language, it can be distributed to everyone on the plant site and to other parts of the organization that may be located anywhere in the world.

In this course participants will learn about the main characteristics of the DCS systems.  They will become familiar with the DCS hardware and how it is connected together to make up the basis of the DCS.  Once the hardware is installed and tested, the participants will learn about programming the DCS software.  Once the software is configured the participants will become familiar with the DCS accessories, such as alarm and data reporting systems.

1

Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

  • Introduction
  • Basic concepts of DCS
  • DCS specifications and selection criteria
  • Control system and security hierarchy
  • DCS implementation

On day one, participants will learn about the basic concepts of DCS and how the thousands of pieces of information required to operate the plant are received into one central unit and then manipulated to control the process.  They will learn about the specifications and selection criteria to consider when implementing a new DCS system.  They will cover how the plant process information is distributed to other DCS users described in the DCS hierarchy, as well as security levels that are established in order to prohibit unauthorized access.

2

DCS Hardware

  • Block diagram
  • Hardware
  • Communication
  • Hardware security and redundancy

Participants will become familiar with the basic parts of the DCS and the hardware involved in bringing information in and sending information out to the final control elements. They will become familiar with the hardware involved in delivering information among any number pf personal computers, as well as internet access.  The second day concludes with participants exposed to the various types of security and redundancy options that are included in the hardware of a typical DCS system.

3

DCS Software

  • Control system configuration
  • Controller configuration
  • Function block configuration

On the third day, participants will be introduced to software connections and the main DCS parts through the control system configuration.   Participants will learn about configuring of individual controllers through the function blocks, which give the flexibility to connect and transform input to determine complex outputs to final control elements.

4

DCS Accessories

  • Alarm system management
  • Reporting
  • Diagnostics
  • Typical DCS Systems

The course concludes on day four  with introduction to the capabilities of the DCS alarm and information reporting systems.  Participants will become familiar with the DCS system diagnostics used to troubleshoot problems.  They will also become familiar with some of the most popular DCS systems available today.

 

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