Super User Dynamic Pressure Drilling (DPD) This 5 day course is designed to help drilling engineering professionals understand the emerging technologies under the umbrella term of Dynamic Pressure Drilling (DPD). DPD refers to a group of technologies that relies on manipulation of downhole pressure via means other than mud weight alone to achieve wellbore objectives. DPD technologies include, Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), Underbalanced Drilling (UBD), Flow Drilling, Low Head Drilling, (Pressurized) Mud Cap Drilling, Dual Gradient Drilling, Air Drilling, Foam Drilling and Continuous Circulation. By the end of the course the participants should know where and how to apply the appropriate DPD method through their gained understanding of DPD equipment and DPD design and control methods. The safe implementation and delivery of DPD projects will also be studied. The course will involve numerous examples of the applications of these types of projects drawn from the literature and the lecturer’s own experiences. Examples will show the benefits, as well as the downsides and pitfalls of using these technologies. The aim of this course is to draw on the experience of previous operators’ implementation experience to learn how to implement a DPD project safely and correctly. Each day will end with a quiz on that day’s topics and participants will be assessed at the end of the course via an exam that tests their fundamental understanding of DPD methodology. 1 DPD Overview and Application Drivers Introduction and expectations DPD overview DPD application drivers Participants will be given an overview of the large variety of DPD technologies, the IADC risk classification of these technologies in order to put them into some kind of perspective, and a brief history lesson on how these technologies have emerged, especially in the last decade. To understand why these technologies have developed it is important to understand the application drivers for the implementation of these technologies; this can range from a simple desire to increase ROP to the more complex and challenging reservoir characterization in real time while drilling. 2 DPD Techniques and Fluids DPD Techniques DPD Fluid selection DPD Gas selection Specialty single phase fluids Two phase flow The various DPD techniques will be examined one by one, going over the methodology, current status, and advantages & disadvantages of each technology and where they should be applied. DPD Pressure Drilling reduces the necessity for heavier fluids and opens up opportunities to use lighter fluids and some novel fluid options will be discussed. For Underbalanced Drilling, it is often necessary to use injected gas to lighten the fluid, therefore the various gases that can be used and the ways of injecting them into the well bore will be covered along with two-phase flow physics and modelling. 3 DPD Equipment Rotating Control Devices MPD equipment UBD equipment Day three will focus on the equipment used in DPD operations. Starting with the Rotating Control Device, which is at the heart of holding pressure in the wellbore while drilling, then moving onto the various pieces of surface equipment that are used in both managed pressure and underbalanced drilling. Equipment covered will include chokes, separators, flow meters, nitrogen generation, flare lines and ancillary equipment. Participants will gain familiarity with the equipment, learn how the equipment works and the selection criteria for equipment in different applications. Various equipment layouts for different applications will also be covered including onshore, offshore and deep water. 4 DPD Design and Control MPD Design & Control UBD Design & Control PMCD Design & Control DPD Tripping & Completion The fourth day will be all about the design and control of DPD operations. Of the upmost importance is well control and participants will learn about the differences between the primary barriers in conventional drilling versus DPD operations. The design of various DPD operations (MPD, UBD & PMCD) will be discussed, with the concept of the ‘Anchor Point’ in MPD operations covered in detail. Drilling with DPD techniques is often considered the ‘easy’ part, while tripping, running casing and cementing require the most thought and attention. The attendees will learn about the various methods to trip in and out of the well while staying in the drilling pressure window, as well as how to successfully cement and/or complete the well following a DPD operation. 5 DPD Project Implementation DPD candidate selection DPD project management and HSE Final Exam The last day will build on the knowledge gained from the previous days and will look at how to select the appropriate candidates for DPD operations. Contra-indicators for using DPD techniques will be discussed. The overall implementation and management of a typical DPD project will be examined with the emphasis on ensuring that the project is delivered safely through training and appropriate use of barriers. Deepwater Drilling Design and Operations This five-day course develops capability, at a skill level, in the design and drilling operations in deepwater wells. It is designed to give drilling engineering professionals an understanding of the technology, processes, and equipment used to drill deepwater oil and gas wells. The course will follow a typical deepwater drilling program and drilling process from geology setting, through metocean environment, station-keeping, rig selection, conductor driving, surface casing setting, to drilling the remainder of the well. Wellhead systems, BOP, and marine riser systems for typical deepwater MODUs will be covered. Once the drilling process and equipment has been reviewed the class will then look at some operational aspects such as well control and shallow hazards; then it will continue with emerging technologies such as multi-axis rigs, Dynamic Pressure Drilling, and surface BOP's. Finally participants will gain awarness of key issues with testing, completing, and interventions, as well as overall operations management od deepwater well projects. This course will be a mix of video presentations, power points, and discussions, along with group exercises to discuss the challenges encountered in a deepwater program. At the end of the course, the participants will understand the complexities and issues which must be addresed when drilling deepwater wells. 1 Deepwater Drilling Challenges and History Deepwater drilling operations Deepwater history Deepwater locations and geology Overburden and compaction Pore and fracture pressures On the first day participants will be given an introduction to deepwater operations and an overview of the offshore drilling history. The class will then look at the more detailed aspects of the deepwater geology and the various deepwater locations in the world. This portion will cover how deepwater reservoirs are formed and why some of the geological challenges associated with deepwater can be explained by the geological settings. Next participants will look at the overburden and compaction issues associated with deepwater locations as it explains the critical differences for pore and fracture pressures between deepwater and shallow water operations. 2 Planning Operations Metocean and currents Rig selection Station keeping Open water operations (ROV’s) Conductors The second day will continue with the discussion on deepwater aspects that have to be taken into account when planning operations, the issues associated with weather and currents, and the impact these have on a deepwater operation. This will lead into station-keeping requirements and methods, and then how rigs are selected: what selection criteria may be required, and how to select which rig type and contractor. The day will continue with a discussion over the ROV systems required for deepwater operations and the shallow hazards faced. 3 Conductors, Surface Casing and Well Design Conductors Subsea wellheads and casing strings Cementing BOP systems On day three, participants will continue to learn about the installation of conductors, subsea wellhead systems, surface casing and subsequent casing strings. They will also learn how deepwater well design is impacted by wellhead systems. Cementing challenges associated with deepwater surface casings and deeper hole sections will be covered. Participants will also focus on BOP systems for deepwater 4 Deepwater Rig Surface Equipment and Well Operations Drilling Riser Systems Drilling equipment for deepwater Deepwater well control Fluids Salt During the fourth day participants will look at drilling risers systems and then take closer look at the surface equipment and system automation employed on deepwater rigs. This will include drilling systems, as well as mud handling and riser handling systems. Deepwater well control will focus on the issues associated with deepwater well control, including a discussion on the BP Macondo well, and some of the common well control issues associated with deepwater operations, including shallow water, gas flows, hydrates, and riser gas issues. Finally concerns associated with drilling fluids will be addressed, and key issues in dealing with salt will be discussed. 5 Drilling Fluids, Subsalt Issues, and New Technologies Multi-axis rigs Dynamic pressure drilling Surface BOP applications Testing, completions and interventions Operations management The final day will be spent discussing new technology implementation, deepwater testing, completions and interventions. and then the issues and solutions in managing well operations in deepwater, the advanced rig systems employed, and the complex deepwater drilling operations. Directional Drilling and Surveying The goal of the course will be to enable participants to understand the operations carried out by directional drillers. They will also learn how to contribute to the design of directional and horizontal wells. The course will cover the fundamentals, design considerations, and operational aspects of directional and horizontal drilling. 1 Directional Drilling Fundamentals and Terminology Fundamentals, applications, and limitations Terminology, well objectives, and target issues Well planning: positioning and coordinate systems Day one will focus on directional drilling fundamentals and terminology. Participants will learn about the fundamentals, applications, and limitations of directional drilling. The day will continue with a discussion over terminology, well objectives, and target issues. A discussion on well planning will close out the day, paying special attention to positioning and coordinating systems. 2 Surveying and Advanced Well Planning Survey calculation methods Anti-collision and well planning Surveying tools MWD, LWD and mudlogging Participants will learn about surveying and advanced well planning on the second day. Survey calculation methods, anti-collision and advanced well planning, and surveying tools will all be covered on this day. The day will end with participants learning about the uses of MWD, LWD and mudlogging in directional drilling. 3 Downhole Equipment Drilling tools and deflection methods Drilling motors overview BHA design Rotary steerable systems Downhole equipment will be the focus of day three. Participants will learn about the different drilling tools and deflection methods. Drilling motors and bit overview will be covered as well. The day will end with participants learning about BHA design and rotary steerable systems. 4 Well Planning and Path Design Directional well path design Horizontal well planning and calculations Horizontal drilling planning Drill string design Torque, drag, shocks and vibrations Day four will cover well planning and path design. On this day participants will get a chance to learn about directional well path design and horizontal well planning. Drillstring design and important aspects of drillstring operation in directional and high angle wellbores is explored. Torque and drag complications in directional wells are explained. 5 Hole Cleaning and Wellbore Stability Hole cleaning Well bore stability Introduction to multilateral wells Geosteering Directional drilling problems and solutions The last day of the course will teach participants about hole cleaning and wellbore stability. Participants will also be given an introduction to multilateral drilling. Geosteering and direction drilling problems and solutions will be discussed. The day will conclude with an exploration of some of the most common problems encountered in directional drilling and a summary of the material that has been covered over the five day course. Cementing Operations Cementing is a fundamental element of effective well construction. By understanding cement chemistry, additive use, and lab procedures the participants will able to build a solid foundation to design and execute cement jobs. Mud removal and centralization will be taught so that the participants can apply effective processes to ensure cement job success. Special purpose cements will be discussed in a way to show when they should and should not be used, as well as how they can be used to solve challenges encountered in complex and extreme well environments. Foamed, engineered particle sized, flexible, and salt cements will also be covered in detail. During this course, participants will practice cementing calculations, as well as job design exercises and cement evaluation methods using real-life examples. Liner cementing and stage cementing jobs will be developed in the classroom. Cement design software will also be demonstrated. 1 Cement Placement and Primary Cement Primary cementing overview Criteria for successful cementing Casing hardware Cement chemistry On the first day, the importance of effective cement placement will be taught, as well as the hardware used to accomplish quality primary cement jobs. Mud removal methods, techniques, and systems will be covered so that the participants will be able to recommend appropriate methods for their wells. 2 Cementing Additives Cementing additives Rheology Cement laboratory equipment Mud removal techniques Temperature prediction and importance in job success Set cement properties The proper use of additives is critical to a successful efficient cement job. On this day, participants will learn how additives can affect cement slurries, the job, and the long term integrity of the well. An understanding of lab procedures and what the tests results mean will help ensure futures jobs are accurately evaluated. Participants will also learn how to estimate or measure temperatures so that slurries can be designed with minimal risk and WOC time needed. 3 Special Purpose Cements Salt cementing Gas migration control Foamed cement Engineered particle slurry cements Lost circulation On the third day, through lecture and demonstration, participants will learn about the different types of special purpose cements used at high and low temperatures. Unstable fluid columns, plastic formations, and conditions, which are conducive to gas migration, will be covered. 4 Cement Job Designs and Calculations Primary cement job design Primary cementing calculations Stage and liner cementing High angle and horizontal cementing Deepwater, plug, and squeeze cementing The fourth day will focus on the more practical aspect of the cement job design as well as calculations. Also, some of the more technical jobs will be explain so participants can learn to appreciate the challenges of a more complicated cement job. For participants who may be involved in deepwater operations, they will have a chance to learn how the special application is addressed and why it is different from conventional cementing operations. Remedial and abandonment cementing jobs will be discussed as well. 5 Cement Job Execution, Procedures, and Evaluation Cement job execution Cement job procedures Cement quality evaluation Sonic and ultrasonic tools Cementing design and evaluation software On the last day participants will apply what they have learned into actual job designs and outline job procedures. Tools used to measure the quality of the cement behind pipes will be explained and participants will also get a chance to apply that knowledge to well logs. A complete review of the course will be given to ensure a thorough understanding of the topics covered during the entire five day course. Drilling Optimization This course will train drilling engineers in the benchmarking, identification, application, and implementation of drilling optimization techniques. These techniques will cover both offset and historical well data, as well as real-time drilling data. The intention of this class will be to give participants in this course knowledge to apply well optimization techniques in well engineering, drilling fluid engineering and well construction engineering. 1 Introduction to Drilling Optimization Managing drilling risks Impact of wellbore stability Drilling Risks: controllable factors and factors which constrain Simple probability and data distribution analysis Processes and techniques The course will begin with a review of what drilling optimization is and is not, by defining and understanding the well design process from the viewpoint of optimal, efficient operations. The course will discuss drilling risks which are manageable and highlight constraints involved in the well construction process. The day will conclude with trainees giving presentations on drilling optimization processes and techniques. 2 Benchmarking with Key Performance Indicators Offset Well Selection: relevant data, data organization, and stick plot Risk analysis Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Benchmarking using KPI's Technical Limit Identification: techniques to quantum change limits The second drilling optimization session will begin with a review of offset well data selection, statistically relevant data, organization, and presentation of offset wells. The day will then continue with the participants learning about the theory of risk, the elements of risk, and the risk control methodologies typically used in the industry. The attendees will be provided with an overview of risk registers, HAZOP, decision trees, effective monetary values, cost-time analysis, RACI, and uncertainty assessment. This day will conclude with the definition and identification of common industry KPI's, the use of KPI's in benchmarking wells, and techniques to positively change the identified technical limits. 3 Design to Execution Well construction design to wellsite operations Performance limitations Non-Productive time The third day of the course will begin with an overview of how an optimized well construction design is put into efficient operation at wellsite. Deliverables, drilling forecasts, and modelling (drilling, hydraulics, T&D) will be covered by the instructor in order to highlight the requirements for 24hrs+ operational lookaheads. The participants will then investigate the controllable and non-controllable performance limitations inherent in all well plans. The day will finish with a session about examining the major contributors to non-productive time during rigsite operations. 4 Measurements and Technology Enablers Surface and downhole measurement Real time management of optimal well construction performance Typical drilling plan Optimization elements Software tools Task analysis and lessons learned ROP monitoring and improvement techniques This day will concentrate on the surface and downhole techniques, systems, and technologies, which can be utilized to monitor and measure drilling optimization. The instructor will provide participants with detailed explanations of the current technology enablers being used to aid the drilling optimization process, as well as review the common software packages used. The day will concludes with a class discussion on ROP monitoring, improvement, and implementation of MSE during operations. 5 Drilling Optimization Workshop Dataset workshop Control and review process Alternate optimization well plans Participants will use real well datasets (provided by client(s)) to review the offset well dataset(s) under the guidance of the instructor (using a control & review process). In doing this each participant will provide alternate optimized well plans. Geomechanics for Drilling Participants in this course will learn about the fundamentals of Geomechanics and the role Geomechanics plays in well programming and operations. This course will cover the stress tensor, experimental rock mechanics, principal earth stresses, and the origins of pore pressure (including methods for measurement of pore pressure). Other topics that will be covered in this course include the concept and construction of Mechanical Earth Models (MEM), wellbore geomechanics, modes of rock deformation, and wellbore deformation. This course will use lectures and case studies to help participants amplify their learning and skills gained throughout this course. Participants will learn from experts in the Geomechanics field about how to plan for wellbore stability, implement geomechanic solutions while drilling, the concepts of wellbore strengthening, and drill bit mechanics. Participants will also use case study exercises to build a MEM and apply it to a proposed high angle production well from a field development plan. 1 Fundamental of Rock Mechanics Fundamentals of rock mechanics How is geomechanics used to design wells and support drilling? The stress tensor Experimental rock mechanics The course will begin with an introduction to the fundamental aspect of rock mechanics and a review of experimental results that have been published in industry papers. After this participants will see how geomechanics can be used to design wells and support drilling operations. Participants will then learn about the stress tensor in particular units, principal stresses, strain, resolving stresses on a plane, constructing Mohr's Circle and analyzing stress, elasticity and elastic properties, effective stress, and other rock mechanic fundamentals. Lastly the attendees will learn about experimental rock mechanics, uniaxial and triaxial testing, thick wall cylinder tests, scratch testing, true triaxial tests, and tensile testing. 2 Earth Stress and Pore Pressure Principal earth stresses Origins of pore pressure Methods to measure pore pressure The second day will begin with participants taking a look at stress in the Earth, including principal earth stresses, regional and local stresses, the world stress map, Andersonian classification of faults, overburden stress, horizontal stress orientation, borehole breakouts, and drilling-induced tensile fractures. Other topics that participants will learn about include image logs, horizontal stress magnitudes, leak-off tests, and fracture gradients. Participants will then examine the detailed origins of pore pressure, measurement methods, methods for estimation, vertical and horizontal methods, Eaton’s method, and a real-time pore pressure approach. 3 Mechanical Earth Model, Wellbore Geomechanics, and Wellbore Stability Concept and construction of the Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) Wellbore geomechanics Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore Wellbore deformation in fractured rock masses The third day participants will focus primarily on the Mechanical Earth Model (MEM), wellbore geomechanics, and wellbore stability issues. This day will begin with participants reviewing the concepts and construction of the MEM, including detailed data requirements and required input data types. With a working MEM, the participant will then learn how to manage wellbore geomechanics and the state of stress in and around the wellbore. Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore, the effects of well azimuth, and inclination will also be covered. Participants will also learn about basic geomechanics calculations. The day will end with participants reviewing wellbore deformation in fractured rock masses and non-classical rock failures. 4 Drilling Geomechanics Planning for wellbore stability Implementation of geomechanics while drilling Wellbore strengthening Drill bit mechanics On day four participants will learn about downhole drilling geomechanics with particular emphasis being placed on planning for wellbore stability and integration of geomechanics into the drilling plan. Participants will then investigate the intricacies of implementing real-time geomechanics while drilling. Participants will also look at how geomechanics is used to provide wellbore strengthening in order to avoid mud losses in depleted formations. To conclude this day, participants will review drill bit mechanics. 5 Geomechanics Case Studies Build Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) Design wellbore stability plan Field development plan On the last day, participants will work in teams in order to put into practice the geomechanics knowledge and skills learned during the week to build an actual MEM. Participants will then use the MEM to design a wellbore stability plan for a proposed high angle well from a field development plan. Well Integrity - Life of a Well Participants in this course will learn how to manage well design, construction, surveillance, and the documentation of well integrity for a “life-of-well” philosophy. An emphasis will be placed on how industry standards and guidelines relate to barrier construction, monitoring, and management. The proper understanding of these concepts will equip each participant with the tools to safely and reliably construct and verify the integrity of a well. Specific concepts that will be covered during this course will include barrier concepts such as geology, casing, cementing, and various equipment used in completion. Well integrity standards for ISO, Norsok, API, UK, Canada, USA, and Norway will be covered. Participants will also learn about corrosion and erosion effects on barriers, issues with loads, pressure, and temperature on barrier integrity, along with barrier inspection and verification. This course will use case studies and projects throughout the week, along with a final presentation by small groups where participants will demonstrate the integrity concepts, methods, importance, and problems topics that were covered during the course. 1 Well Barriers and Their Principles Definition of a well barrier Well integrity Overview of industry standards and government regulations Principles, schematics, and element acceptance criteria Day one the participants will learn about the importance and difficulty of achieving well integrity throughout the life of a well. Part of the day will cover a review of important industry standards and recommended practices for well integrity concepts and methods used to achieve barriers in the well. Case studies will also be used to help participants in analyzing integrity concepts. 2 Well Integrity Elements and Issues Examples of well integrity issues Well barrier elements Well barrier issues This day will focus on well integrity, covering well integrity issues and elements. Participants will learn about specific well barrier elements such as geology, fluid columns, tubulars, cement, completion string and downhole equipment, and wellheads. These well barrier elements will be discussed to help participants understand how these elements inter-relate to assure well integrity. A new case study will be conducted to show how barrier elements can be used. 3 Well Barrier Verification Subsea wellheads Well integrity issues (cont.) Well barrier verification testing Loads and load cases On day two participants will learn why well barrier verification is at the center of ensuring well integrity for the life of the well. Participants will work on a case study to see how barriers are verified, what methods are used for testing, and what constitutes successful outcomes of a test. Participants will also learn about the different ways in which a well may become loaded and what challenges that would be placed on the barriers. 4 Well Barrier Element Selection and Issues in Intervention and Abandonment How to choose a Well Barrier Element (WBE) WBE manufacturing QCP and testing Well barrier issues – intervention Annular pressure buildup Abandonment and suspension On this day participants will learn about the well barrier element selection and how to choose a reliable WBE. This day will also cover WBE issues and well intervention, such as casing inspection and cement verification. Manufacturing assurances, inspections, and special issues which can be encountered during well intervention will also be topics participants will learn on this day. The important concern with causes and management of annular pressure buildup, abandonment, and suspension will be discussed. 5 Well Integrity Management Systems (WIMS) and Safety and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) WIMS and SEMS Operational phase well integrity Hazard analysis, emergency response, and management of change Contractor selection Documentation, handover, and recordkeeping Two important management systems used to evaluate barrier effectiveness will be covered on this day, the WIMS and SEMS. Both of these systems are used by regulatory authorities to evaluate programs used to develop, maintain, monitor, and verify barrier effectiveness. Participants will learn about hazard analysis, emergency response, management of change, and contractor selection. Proper documentation procedures will also be discussed and a practical exercise will be given to emphasize the concepts. Casing Design This course will focus on casing design, both from an engineering and an operation perspective. Design concepts will be covered for a wide range of straightforward, as well as hostile environments. The course will examine the nomenclature of casing design, manufacturing processes, material properties and material selection. The theory of burst, collapse, and axial loading will be discussed, along with design policies and procedures. Important API specifications and other industry standards will be discussed in order for the participants to become familiar with these documents. Connection and special cases, including HPHT and sour service, will be covered. Casing setting depths and depth design concepts will also be covered in detail. A significant part of the course will involve exercises and self-paced (homework) activities which may be completed outside the classroom schedule. Participants should have a personal calculator and access to a computer with a spreadsheet software program. Participants will need to know how to enter formulas into their spreadsheet software. This course will be delivered in a class driven process. The instructor, along with the participants, will team together to set the pace of learning. Lectures interspersed with classroom discussion and exercises will be used to ensure understanding and integration of concepts needed to evaluate potential service requirements, give recommendations, and select the appropriate tubulars. The exact schedule and depth of content covered during the course will be tailored to the interest and needs of the audience and may deviate from what is shown in the daily schedule. 1 Steel, Manufacturing, API, and ISO Material and mechanical properties of steel API and ISO ratings and formulas Tubular testing Oil country tubular goods manufacturing Day one of this course will begin with discussions of material and mechanical properties of steel, along with stress-strain and deformation that will lay the ground work for an understanding of the limitations of published tubular ratings. Participants will get a chance to learn about API and ISO rating and tubular strength formulas. Specific API and ISO topics that will be covered include API yield stress, Barlow Equation for tubular internal yield, casing thread leak resistance, collapse formulas, and tension. The day will end with participants learning about tubular manufacturing and testing. 2 Connections, Sulfide Stress Cracking, and Corrosion Resistant Material Selection API and proprietary connections API thread leak resistance Sour service considerations Corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) selection Tubular connections and sour service conditions will be the focus of day two. Specific topics of API thread forms, marking and make-up considerations will be discussed in detail. Proprietary thread types will also be discussed and students will get an opportunity to learn about the advantages and benefits of different thread form styles. Hydrogen sulfide stress cracking mechanism will be explored. Corrosion, its effect on tubulars and guidelines for selection of appropriate materials for casing under different corrosive conditions will be explained. 3 Triaxial Stress and Setting Depth Determination Design principals and factors Load concepts Triaxial stress Casing wear Setting depth determination On day three, the spreadsheet will be completed with formulas for calculating triaxial stress of various load states which casing may be exposed. Design factors and comparison between uni-axial and triaxial stress will be evaluated. Buckling of tubulars will be discussed, which will help as participants learn about effects of temperature change on tubulars. Casing wear mechanisms and some suggestions for management and design for effects of wear will be presented. Casing setting depth needed for well control integrity will finish the day. 4 Service Life, Load Cases, and Storage Load cases Base case Procurement Inspection Running procedures Service life models and load cases will be the focus of day four. Load cases, such as axial, burst, and collapse will be explained and load estimates for different situations will be evaluated. Base case determination from which load changes are evaluated will be covered. Participants will learn about the planning, specifications, and quality assurance of procurement. The day will end with a discussion over inspection types, marking, and suggestions on running practices. 5 Tubular Design Software and Comprehensive Casing Design Tubular design software Final comprehensive casing design project The last day of this course participants will learn about tubular design software and some of the ways which it can be used in well planning and casing design. The day will end with the participants breaking into teams and working on a final comprehensive casing design project.