E&P Introduction and Fundamentals

Increase your understanding of the E&P industry with: 

Introduction to Geology

Geology is a core science that underpins much of what we do in the Oil & Gas business. A good understanding of the principles of Geology as they apply to Petroleum is essential for any subsurface discipline.

The primary objective of this course is to introduce E&P professionals to the key concepts and principles of Geology as applied to the Oil & Gas industry. The course will provide a summary of the fundamentals of Geology that need to be understood in order to integrate such information in the processes of petroleum exploration, development, and production.

The course is classroom-based, containing a mix of theory, application, exercises and videos.

Introduction

Course Objectives - History and Economics of Petroleum - Prudhoe Bay Example

Geology in General

Geological Principles - Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics - Geological Time and Age Dating - Major Rock Types

Structural Features

Structural Style and Stress Fields - Folds, Faults, Unconformities, and Fractures - Structural and Hydrocarbon Traps

Clastic Depositional Systems

Continental Systems – Fluvial Systems - Deltaic Systems and Types - Marine Systems – barriers and deepwater fans

2- Carbonate Depositional Systems

Carbonate and Clastic systems contrasts - Carbonate Facies Models - Carbonate Platforms and Ramp Systems - Carbonate Reservoir Properties - Classification of Carbonate Rocks

Geologic Mapping and Cross-Sections

Mapping and Contouring Concepts - Contouring Types and Guidelines - Isopach / Net Pay Mapping Exercises - Structural and Stratigraphic Cross-Sections - Constructing a Cross-Section - Property Mapping Exercises - North Frisco City Field Example

3- The Petroleum System

What is a Petroleum System? - Processes of Hydrocarbon Generation - Source Rocks – Organic Matter Types - Traps and Seals – definition and types - The Play Concept - Petroleum System Processes and Events

Correlation and Stratigraphy

Principles of correlation - Use of Wireline Logs for Correlation - Correlation Approaches – Lithostratigraphy and Chronostratigraphy - Sequence Stratigraphy, Seismic Stratigraphy & Biostratigraphy

Pore Systems and Diagenesis

Characterizing the Pore System - Porosity and Permeability - Classification of Clastic Rocks - Creation, destruction and preservation of porosity - Diagenesis - Clay Types and Distributions - Porosity types in clastic and carbonate rocks

Geological Modeling

Building a Static Reservoir Model - Input Datatypes - Reservoir Heterogeneity and Scales of Investigation - Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling - Using Seismic Data in Modeling - Derivation of Geological Models using Flow Units

4- Unconventional Resources

Shale as a hydrocarbon source and reservoir - Unconventional Gas and Oil - History, definitions, economics.

Seismic Methods and Petroleum Geology

Use of Seismic Tools in Petroleum Geology - Basic Principles of the Reflection Seismic Method - Data Acquisition – Land, Marine, and Borehole - Data Processing - Seismic Interpretation – 2D, 3D, and 4D

Wellbore Data - Wireline and Core

What Logging Means - Different Measurements We Make - Basic Wireline Tools, and what they measure - Processing and Interpretation - Analysis of Porosity, Saturation, and Lithology - Coring a well, Conventional and Sidewall - Core Analysis - Log-Core Correlation and Calibration.

 

Introduction to Petro physics - Including Traditional and Reservoir Petro physics

Introduction to Petrophysics covers fundamental petrophysical relations, with a primary focus on understanding water saturation, fluid contacts and free water level.  Participants learn formation evaluation based on pore-geometry and petrophysical rock types.

Additional topics include fundamentals of core analysis, wireline log and open-hole interpretation. Applied work sessions (Excel) and participant presentations (PowerPoint) are key cornerstones that help participants gain confidence in using these methods. Several case studies are used to show the importance of integration between geology, geophysics petrophysics and reservoir engineering. 

Petrophysical rock types are introduced in the 3 day version, capillary pressure and saturation height models are introduced in the 4 day version and flow units are introduced in the 5 day version.

This course can be offered as a 3, 4 or 5 day option.  The course outline of proposed topiscs, provides additional details. 

Typically, over 30 percent of the course is “learn by doing, which includes workshops, participant presentations and group discussions”.

  • Why petrophysics is important and how it is the key to building reservoir models 
  • An overview of how petrophysics fits into a reservoir characterization work flow
  • Pre-course technical assessment 
  • Petrophysical properties and how they relate to static and dynamic models are discussed to show the importance of cross discipline integration (reservoir fluid properties, drive mechanism, volumetrics and recovery factors)
  • Introduce the concept of using logs to identify reservoir fluids (oil, gas and water)
  • Introduce a visual conceptual 3-Line log analysis technique
  • Workshop - Quick Look Log Analysis 
  • Workshop - What is cubic packing  
  • Why core-log integration helps improve our understanding of reservoir rocks 
  • Introduce Routine Core Analysis 
  • Porosity (total, effective includes both obvious and finer details
  • Log based porosity (sonic, density, neutron and NMR Porosity)
  • Core and log integration (porosity and lithology)
  • Introduce the concept of petrophsyical rock types 
  • Workshop – Facies, initial rock types and core sampling
  • Workshop - Using core data to confirm lithology and reservoir qiality 
  • Petrophsyical rock types are relate storage and flow capacity with capillary pressure 
  • Introduce the ARchie Method and concept
  • Determining petrophysical rock types using pore throat radius (Winland, Pittman and FZI approaches)
  • “Water saturation is not an accident…..”
  • Workshop - Winland petrophysical rock types
  • Introduction to capillary pressure, fluid contacts and free water level
  • Workshop - Capillary Pressure
  • Workshop - How facies and petrophsyical rock types are used together 
  • A practical way to understand capillary fluid contacts and free water level
  • Introduce high pressure mercury injection as a pore geometry evaluation tool
  • Introduce how to determine the number of petrophsyical rock types needed in a field and well
  • Workshop - determine the number of petrophsyical rock type
  • Workshop - discuss the various ways to average petrophsyical data
  • Introduce the height above free water concept
  • Workshop - Convert Lab Capillary Pressure to Height Above Free Water
  • Introduce the concept of Saturation Height Modeling
  • Workshop - Well Review using Petrophsyical Rock Types and Saturation Height Model (Excel) 
  • Using Advanced Flow Units as An Integration and Well Evaluation Tool 
  • Introduce the concept of flow units
  • Workshop - using basic flow units
  • Introduce the concept of advanced flow units (determine the PRT, what units will produce water etc.)
  • Workshop - Well evaluation using advanced flow units
  • Special Topic 1
  • Final cpurse technical assessment
  • Course wrap up 

 

Introduction to Geophysics: Acquisition, Processing and Interpretation

The overall objective of the course is to introduce E&P professionals to the key concepts and principles that form the basis for value added geophysical applications in exploration, field appraisal, and reservoir management.  Learning objectives are at basic awareness to knowledge levels.  Emphasis is on practical understanding of seismic acquisition, processing, imaging, interpretation and prediction of geological and petrophysical properties from seismic.  Data examples, videos, exercises, and workshops are used to illustrate key concepts.  Practical issues, and pitfalls as they affect the application of geophysical data and information in E&P workflows are discussed.  The practical aspects of seismic interpretation are covered with examples that involve seismic structural mapping, stratigraphic analysis, and amplitude/attribute methods.

This course is also available in a 5-day version using challenges from the OilSim Simulator

  • Introduction
  • Role of Geophysics in the E&P business
  • What do we get from Geophysical Data?
  • Overview of Geophysical techniques 
  • The business of Geophysics -  Industry and competitive landscape
  • Seismic Markets – Equipment, Acquisition, Multiclient
  • Geophysics in Schlumberger

Non-Seismic Methods

  • Gravity and Aero-Gravity
  • Magnetic and Aeromagnetic
  • Electromagnetic – Controlled Source and Magneto-telluric
  • Use and application of non-seismic technologies
  • Data examples

Seismic Principles

  • The seismic experiment
  • Reflection and refraction
  • The seismic wavelet
  • P and S waves – Snell’s Law
  • Resolution
  • Multifold acquisition
  • Seismic velocities
    • Marine Seismic Acquisition
  • Hyperbolic move-out
  • Marine sources – airguns. Bubble effect
  • Simultaneous sources
  • Seismic recording systems
  • Hydrophones and streamers
  • Streamer steering
  • Single sensor and time lapse
  • Seismic acquisition parameters and QC

Advanced Marine Acquisition Techniques (OPTIONAL)

  • Use of multiple sources and receivers
  • Wide-azimuth
  • Full azimuth Coil acquisition
  • Broadband
  • Ghost attenuation
  • Over-under shooting

Land Seismic Acquisition

  • Impact of near surface on data quality
  • Land seismic sources - dynamite and Vibroseis
  • Simultaneous sources
  • Acquisition design
  • Geophones and arrays
  • Land seismic operations
  • Land seismic acquisition QC
    • Seismic Data Processing  - Data Conditioning
  • Near surface corrections - statics
  • Noise attenuation
  • Multiple attenuation
  • Wavelet shaping and deconvolution
  • NMO Correction
  • Velocities and velocity analysis 

Seismic Data Imaging

  • Migration – types and application
  • Time and Depth Imaging
  • Velocity Modeling
  • Seismic Illumination
    • Borehole Seismic Acquisition and Processing
  • Borehole geophysical principles
  • Field technology – Acquisition Methods
  • Check shots and VSPs
  • Seismic while Drilling
  • Cross well seismic
  • Passive seismic 

Seismic Data Interpretation

  • Trap definition
  • Collaborative Interpretation – Seismic to Simulation
  • Synthetic seismograms
  • Structural mapping and contouring
  • Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphy
  • Amplitudes and DHI
  • Attributes, AVO & Inversion
  • Summary – What concerns us about seismic data

A History of Innovation 

  • Evolution of the Seismic Business
  • Seismic Service Companies – Seismos to WesternGeco

 

 

Introduction to Drilling

his, Introduction to Drilling, course is intended for individuals who will be working closely with drilling departments within their companies.  This course will give participants a complete understanding of the processes involved in the drilling of oil and gas wells.

On each day, there will be a daily, instructor led presentation.  The course material that is provided to each participant will contain sufficient attached notes to form a basic manual.

To reinforce the learning opportunities some videos and basic exercises will be done.

1-Well Construction Overview

  • Oil & Gas Field Lifecycle
  • Interaction with other disciplines
  • Well construction risks
  • Roles and responsibilities of the team
  • Rig types and equipment      

Participants will have a general overview of well construction.  They will learn where drilling fits into the exploration and production process and its interaction with other domains.

Participants will also learn what information is required and available for the well construction group, including different risks involved in well construction, as well as the roles and responsibilities at the wellsite and office.  The different rig types and main equipment used in well construction will also be discussed.

2-Well Design Overview 

  • Geology Fundamentals
  • Timeline and long lead times
  • Preliminary Well Preparation
  • Cost Estimation - AFE 

Day two will focus on the design of a well.  Participants will get the chance to learn about data inputs, typical timelines, long lead times, offset well analysis, and well timing.  Costs, risks, AFE generation and the impact of surface constraints will also be covered.

3-Casing and Directional Drilling 

  • Casing and Cementing Overview
  • Directional wells; types and applications
  • Deflection Tools and Kick off Techniques
  • Bit types, features, and applications

The day will start with casing and cementing overview, utilization of videos will enhance the understanding of the process, then participants will focus on directional drilling.  Several types of directional wells and their applications will be covered, as well as the different deflection tools and directional BHAs.  Finally types, features, and applications of bits will be covered.

4-Geodetic Coordinates, Drilling Fluids and Well Control

  • Geodetics and coordinate systems
  • Surveying
  • Drilling fluids
  • Kick causes, prevention, and detection
  • Well control equipment   

The day will start with a discussion over geodetics, coordinate systems, and the requirements of wellbore surveying.  Then a drilling fluids overview will continue to highlight their importance in drilling operations, finally instructor will discuss about well control, kick causes, prevention, and detection including the cause and significance of shallow gas.  The day will end with attendees learning about typical well control equipment.

5-Well Execution and Real-Time Operations

  • Risk Management
  • Typical drilling problems and operations risks
  • Failure Prevention
  • Real-time concepts, infrastructure, and monitoring

Well execution and real-time operations will be the main topics covered on the last day.  Participants will get the opportunity to learn about typical drilling problems, and operation risks.  They will also learn about real-time concepts, infrastructure, and monitoring.  Interpreting real-time measurements will also be discussed.       

Reservoir Engineering for Non-Reservoir Engineers

This course covers the fundamentals, with a primary focus on understanding fluid flow in porous media.  Participants will learn reservoir engineering based on the application of analytical techniques.

Key reservoir engineering concepts such as reservoir drive mechanisms, volumetrics, petroleum fluid properties and recovery factors will be introduced as tools.  Typically, around 30 percent of the course will be “learn by doing", which includes exercises, and group discussions.

1-Fundamentals & Darcy’s Law 

  • Reservoir engineering overview
  • Fundamentals of reservoir phase behavior
  • Darcy’s Law and fundamentals of fluid flow 

Participants will be given a brief introduction to the course and what they can expect.  During this day fundamentals of reservoir phase behavior and fluid flow will be discussed.  Participants will also be introduced to Darcy’s Law.

2-Well and Reservoir Concepts 

  • Reservoir Rock Properties
  • Fluid statics and fluid distribution
  • Reservoir drive mechanisms
  • Oil and gas well performance
  • Oil displacement concepts

On this day, participants will be introduced to fluid statics and distribution along with reservoir drive mechanisms.  Oil and gas well performance will also be discussed.  Oil displacement concept will also be covered.

3-Well Testing and Analysis

  • Hydrocarbon reserves volumetric method
  • Well Decline Curve Analysis
  • Material Balance Concepts
  • Principles Of Well Testing

Day 3 will start with hydrocarbon reserves volumetric methods. Participants will learn decline curve analysis and material balance concepts.  They will also be discussing the principles of well testing during this day.  Participants will also learn about the development of the diffusivity equation and how to use it. 

Introduction to Production Engineering

 

Introduction to Production Engineering covers fundamental concepts, following the hydrocarbons production cycle. The course starts with a revision of Reservoir Engineering fundamental notions, focusing then in the effect of well completion in production and finally concentrating in the most common operations and well interventions.

The course has class exercises to ensure the concepts are properly understood and animations are presented to illustrate the operation of downhole tools.

The is primarily designed for non-Production Engineers with the objectives:

  • Become conversant on major topics within the production engineering
  • Develop empathy for the challenges faced by the industry related to production engineering topics
  • Develop the vocabulary and understanding of roles necessary to facilitate discussions with other professionals on production engineering topics

 

1-Overview of Reservoir concepts. How reservoir properties affect production:

  • Introduction, Course Objectives
  • 1st Day Quiz
  • Geology & Production
  • Rock Properties
  • Fluid Properties
  • Reserves
  • Driving Mechanisms

 

2-Well Performance and Nodal Analysis:

  • Radial Flow - Oil Wells
  • Radial Flow - Gas Wells
  • Damage and Skin
  • Well Testing
  • Nodal Analysis

 

3-Introduction to Completions:

  • Casing string and suspension
  • Tubing Selection and Connections
  • Packers
  • Wellheads, Xmas trees and Surface Facilities
  • Accessories
  • Safety Valves
  • Running Completions
  • Artificial Lift

 

4-Introduction to Completions (cont.) and Introduction to Well Intervention:

  • Multilaterals
  • Sand Control
  • Smart Completions
  • Perforating
  • Candidate Selection for Acidizing
  • Acidizing
  • Fracturing

 

5

  • Production Logging
  • Considerations on Coiled Tubing 
  • Unconventional Production (Shale Gas)
  • Surface Facilities

Last Day Quiz

Petroleum Economics

This course is designed for learning the basics of petroleum economics and project selection. Several key concepts that will be covered are the time value of money, cash flow basics, common economic indicators, fiscal systems and project selection fundamentals.  An introduction to basic risk analysis will also be presented.

The participants will receive an overview of petroleum economics, including an introduction to basic cash flow and net present value.  The main types and elements of fiscal regimes around the world will be presented.  During these course participants will evaluate and make recommendations on potential oil and gas investments.

This course mainly uses Excel but can be taught with Merak Peep and Decision Tool Kit.

1- Project Economics

  • Methods of evaluation
  • Project lifecycle and who is involved
  • Common types of oil and gas upstream projects
  • Forecasting production, prices and expenses

Participants will learn why project economics are necessary and the methods for economic evaluation.  They will also learn about the project lifecycle and who is involved.  During the course, common types of oil and gas upstream projects will be presented.  The concepts and methods of forecasting production, prices and operating expenses will also be reviewed.

2-Cash Flow and Economic Indicators

  • Defining revenue and operating expenses
  • Capital expenditures
  • Discounting and present value
  • Economic indicators

On this day the cash flow stream will be constructed in detail, including company revenue, operating, and capital expenditures.  In addition, the concepts of discounting and net present value will be presented and practiced.  Multiple economic indicators will be discussed, including DPI, IRR, hurdle rate, WACC and more.

3-Fiscal Regimes

  • The main types and elements of fiscal regimes
  • Cash flows for concessionary systems and production sharing contracts
  • Service agreements
  • Current trends in fiscal systems

Participants will be introduced to the main types and elements of fiscal regimes around the world.  They will also learn to build cash flows for concessionary systems and simple production sharing contracts.  The different types of service agreements will be reviewed, and then investments under different fiscal regimes will be compared.

4-Project Investment Analysis

  • Defining risk, sensitivity analysis, and calculating EMV and ENPV
  • Incremental investment analysis
  • Multiple project investment analysis including project ranking
  • The capital budgeting and project selection process

During this day participants will discuss and incorporate risk and sensitivity analysis in order to calculate EMV and ENPV.  The purpose of incremental investment analysis will be presented.  They will also review a general capital budgeting and the project selection process.  Participants will then evaluate and make recommendations about potential oil and gas investments.

 

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