Super User Introduction to Geology Geology is a core science that underpins much of what we do in the Oil & Gas business. A good understanding of the principles of Geology as they apply to Petroleum is essential for any subsurface discipline. The primary objective of this course is to introduce E&P professionals to the key concepts and principles of Geology as applied to the Oil & Gas industry. The course will provide a summary of the fundamentals of Geology that need to be understood in order to integrate such information in the processes of petroleum exploration, development, and production. The course is classroom-based, containing a mix of theory, application, exercises and videos. 1 Introduction Course Objectives - History and Economics of Petroleum - Prudhoe Bay Example Geology in General Geological Principles - Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics - Geological Time and Age Dating - Major Rock Types Structural Features Structural Style and Stress Fields - Folds, Faults, Unconformities, and Fractures - Structural and Hydrocarbon Traps Clastic Depositional Systems Continental Systems – Fluvial Systems - Deltaic Systems and Types - Marine Systems – barriers and deepwater fans 2 Carbonate Depositional Systems Carbonate and Clastic systems contrasts - Carbonate Facies Models - Carbonate Platforms and Ramp Systems - Carbonate Reservoir Properties - Classification of Carbonate Rocks Geologic Mapping and Cross-Sections Mapping and Contouring Concepts - Contouring Types and Guidelines - Isopach / Net Pay Mapping Exercises - Structural and Stratigraphic Cross-Sections - Constructing a Cross-Section - Property Mapping Exercises - North Frisco City Field Example 3 The Petroleum System What is a Petroleum System? - Processes of Hydrocarbon Generation - Source Rocks – Organic Matter Types - Traps and Seals – definition and types - The Play Concept - Petroleum System Processes and Events Correlation and Stratigraphy Principles of correlation - Use of Wireline Logs for Correlation - Correlation Approaches – Lithostratigraphy and Chronostratigraphy - Sequence Stratigraphy, Seismic Stratigraphy & Biostratigraphy Pore Systems and Diagenesis Characterizing the Pore System - Porosity and Permeability - Classification of Clastic Rocks - Creation, destruction and preservation of porosity - Diagenesis - Clay Types and Distributions - Porosity types in clastic and carbonate rocks Geological Modeling Building a Static Reservoir Model - Input Datatypes - Reservoir Heterogeneity and Scales of Investigation - Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling - Using Seismic Data in Modeling - Derivation of Geological Models using Flow Units 4 Unconventional Resources Shale as a hydrocarbon source and reservoir - Unconventional Gas and Oil - History, definitions, economics. Seismic Methods and Petroleum Geology Use of Seismic Tools in Petroleum Geology - Basic Principles of the Reflection Seismic Method - Data Acquisition – Land, Marine, and Borehole - Data Processing - Seismic Interpretation – 2D, 3D, and 4D Wellbore Data - Wireline and Core What Logging Means - Different Measurements We Make - Basic Wireline Tools, and what they measure - Processing and Interpretation - Analysis of Porosity, Saturation, and Lithology - Coring a well, Conventional and Sidewall - Core Analysis - Log-Core Correlation and Calibration. Operations and Wellsite Geology This course provides a complete overview of wellsite operations from the perspective of the Operations Geologist and the Wellsite Geologist. The focus is on being able to understand the job functions that are typically performed at the wellsite, and what use is made of the large amounts of data collected. The course will also provide an overview of essential drilling operations that have a direct bearing on these discliplines. Wellsite geologists study rock cuttings from oil and gas wells to determine what rock formations are being drilled into and how drilling should proceed. They identify critical strata from core samples and rock-cutting data and build up knowledge of the structure being drilled. They are experienced geologists, deciding when specialized tests should be carried out and, ultimately, when to stop drilling. They send reports and logs of completed drilling to the operations geologist and offer geological advice to oil company representatives. They also incorporate health and safety requirements in daily geological operations. Wellsite geologists also liaise with drilling engineers, petroleum engineers and mudloggers during the course of projects. Participants will learn the techniques used by wellsite geologists in formation evaluation through a combination of lectures and exercises that can typically be done at the wellsite. At the end of the course, the participants should have a good understanding and knowledge of the requirements of both Operations and Wellsite Geology. The course will blend classroom instruction with several practical exercise sessions. If location permits, a visit to a wellsite can be arranged. 1 Introduction What is an Operations and Wellsite Geologist? Exploration and Drilling Programs – Risk assessment, regional analysis, pre-drill data acquisition. Components of a prospect Overview of Petroleum Geology The Petroleum system – elements & processes The Reservoir – Sedimentary Environments The Trap – Structure & Stratigraphy Mapping and Cross-Sections Pore Systems and Flow Units Reserves and Resources – classification and categories Data Types and Management Wireline Data – open and cased hole, testing, LWD and MWD Mud Logging Data – geological, drilling, pressure Core Data – whole core and sidewall core 2 Drilling Operations The drilling team – who does what? Types of Drilling rigs Rig Sub-systems – power, hoisting, rotary, circulating, well control Drilling tools and components – including drilling fluid Well control – kicks causes – basic calculations – safety equipment – kill methods Well costs Planning a Well Well Design Directional Drilling – methods and calculations Geosteering 3 Mud Logging The Logging unit – components and functions Services – monitoring, sampling, analysis Cuttings analysis and description The mud log Safety considerations – monitoring, overpressure, downtime Gas detection and analysis – types of gas – gas shows – equipment and methods Coring and Core Analysis Coring methods and equipment Whole Core and Sidewall Core Core handling and preservation Basic calculations – core-log integration 4 Pore Pressure and Wellbore Stability Overburden and compaction Pore pressure generation – estimation – normal and abnormal pressure Detection from Seismic – pre-drill prediction Stress and Strain – wellbore failure – lost circulation Sampling – types and preservation Quality control of acquired wellsite data Wellsite Geologist Responsibilities Wireline Logging Tools and Measurements Review of basic logging tools for lithology, porosity, saturation Resistivity and Invasion 5 Wireline Log Interpretation Basic concepts – quicklook workflow Determination of lithology Shale – calculation of shale volume - effects and corrections Determination of porosity Determination of water saturation – resistivity effects – formation water Analysis techniques - crossplots Cased Hole Logging Production Monitoring and Reservoir Performance Cement Bold Log Evaluation Borehole Imaging Dipmeter Principles Dipmeter Interpretation Structural Geology for Petroleum Applications This course is delivered in 3 hour segments over 3 days. The course is delivered by virtual means using Skype for Business. This Virtual Classroom has been designed to familiarize class participants with the fundamentals of Structural Geology, as used and required in and for the Oil & Gas Industry. Structural Geology is defined as “The discipline within the science of Geology that relates to rock unit geometry and the deformational histories that produced those geometries.” 1 Session One (3 hours) - Structural Concepts and Fundamentals Forces - Stress and strain Tectonics - Extensional, Compressional, Strike-Slip Scale - Regional to Microscopic Students will gain an understanding of the forces involved in the creation of structure, and of the relationship between those forces and the subsequent structure type. This will be discussed at all scales, from scall-scale to regional. The tectonic origin of the forces will be discussed in relation to the large-scale structures that result. At the end of the session, students will have a clear understanding of how and why structures happen. 2 Session Two (3 hours) - Expression of Structure Ductile Deformation - Folding Brittle Deformation - Faulting Brittle Deformation - Fracturing This session is devoted to understanding the types of structures that can be formed, how they are formed, and how to recognise and describe the structure. The three basic categories - folding, faulting, and fracturing - will be covered, with respect to their relevance to the petroleum industry and their ability to create petroleum traps. At the end of the session, students will understand how to recognise and classify structure. 3 Session 3 (3 hours) - Interpretation of Structure Seismic Interpretation of Structure Structural Interpretation of Borehole Images Surface Representation of Structure This session is devoted to the interpretation of structure from the data meansurements and types currently employed in the petroleum industry. This is divided into Geophysical, Borehole (Petrophysical) and Mapping sections. At the end of this session, students should be able to perform functional interpretations from these types of data. Integrated Reservoir Modeling: Interpretation, Evaluation, and Optimization with Petrel This five day interactive and practical course will help participants to use geological modeling to produce realistic volumetric estimations for hydrocarbon reservoirs. It will show how new operational data and revised interpretations, such as a new well or a recently discovered fault, can be identified and incorporated into models at any point in the workflow. This course will introduce the procedures and workflow for building a 3D model, regardless of the software available to the modeling team. In other words, this will be an attempt at a best practice approach to a complex and varied workflow. There will be a particular emphasis on integrating static and dynamic reservoir properties with the geological facies model. Exercises will be done using industry standard modelling software (Petrel), although it should be emphasized that the purpose of the course is methodology and not software operation. Relevant industry case studies and practical applications will be reviewed throughout the course. Participants will gain an understanding of the key challenges associated with building effective 3D reservoir models from interpretation and design to quality assurance and optimization of results. Participants will understand the science and workflows behind building consistent 3D reservoir models including fluid distribution, permeability, compartments and volumetric estimation. They will learn how integrate data from cores and logs and how to upscale this data into geological and flow simulation models that will have a high impact on field development and production scenarios. 1 Conceptual Design and Workflow Reservoir envelope: top and base structure Internal framework: correlation scheme Reservoir compartments: fault geometry Reservoir architecture: facies model Petrophysical property distribution Volumetric Assessment When planning a reservoir modeling project, the ultimate purpose of the model must be defined. To this end the geological model should address all of the above points. On the first day, participants will learn about the retention of relevant fine-scale detail through upscaling. The process of building a 3D reservoir model will always follow the same general workflow, regardless of the tools available to the modelling team. Each of the steps will be outlined in the course with an appreciation of the required input data, associated uncertainties, and likely deliverable and its use. The database used for the exercises will be from a real field that includes two different clastic reservoir types with different modeling challenges. 2 Reservoir Framework Depth conversion uncertainty Model surface selection and quality control Fault modelling and compartments Stratigraphy and correlation Grid construction In volumetric models the greatest uncertainty is usually the gross rock volume at the top structure map and the hydrocarbon contact. Depth conversion, where well data can be sparse, leads to much of this uncertainty. Structural models that result in over complexity, much of which cannot be modelled, may drive seismic interpretation. Participants will learn how to decide what structural elements to include, which can be a source of much debate. Likewise too much well-to-well correlation can over science a model especially when still in development and drilling surprises are common, so it will be covered on this day as well. 3 Reservoir Architecture Depositional models and facies analysis Core-log integration Basic statistics Objects and indicators Seismic conditioning Facies modelling Participants will learn about the different clastic and carbonate depositional environments and how to best characterize them for subsequent modelling. The dependence on statistics will be introduced as a way to demonstrate the different methods of facies modelling available. 4 Property Modeling in 3D Basic petrophysics Rock typing More basic statistics Porosity models Saturation models Permeability models Running through the course will be the theme of petrophysics, always calibrated to the geology, as a way to distribute reservoir properties. Participants will be shown simple rock typing methods that are readily applicable to 3D models. Particular attention will be paid to saturation height methods that accurately distribute fluids through the model. 5 Uncertainty and Upscaling Geological model analysis Hydrocarbon volumes initially in place Drainable volumes Simulation grid construction Property upscaling Multiple scenarios, realizations, and ranking What makes a good static model will be discussed. The methods of interrogating and analyzing the results described before addressing the thorny question of upscaling for dynamic simulation will also be covered. Basin Analysis and Petroleum Systems Modeling The quality of a numeric computer model is highly dependent on the quality of the input data. This 5-day course covers the key aspects of basin analysis and subsequent basin and petroleum systems modeling from input to output. We will discuss basin evolution beginning with plate tectonics, all the way to petroleum generation and migration. We will look at how risks and uncertainties influence our understanding of the petroleum systems within a basin and how we can quantify those uncertainties. The aim of this course is to provide the basic geoscience background needed by anyone engaged in Petroleum Systems Modeling. Attendees will learn what kinds of questions to ask, what kind of data is needed to build models and solve particular problems and to apply geological reasoning to quantifying uncertainties. 1 Introduction to Sedimentary Basins Definitions Plate Tectonics Basin Forming Mechanisms How are basins formed? Where are basins formed? Basin Classification and Structural Analysis Nomenclatures Structural styles within sedimentary basins 2 Basin Fill Sequence Stratigraphy Depositional Environments Geochemical Analysis Organic Matter in Sediments Source Rocks Geochemical Analysis for Petroleum Exploration 3 Temperatures in Sedimentary Basins Pressure and Compaction Heat Flow Temperatures 4 Petroleum Systems Modeling Hydrocarbon Generation Hydrocarbon Migration The Petroleum System Approach Uncertainty Management and Quantification 5 Petroleum Systems Modeling Hydrocarbon Generation Hydrocarbon Migration The Petroleum System Approach Uncertainty Management and Quantification Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy and Application to Petroleum Reservoirs This course examines the processes leading to the formation and accumulation of carbonate rocks and how sequence stratigraphy provides a predictive method to understand the formation of carbonate reservoirs. Facies and facies models are described, including their variation in different tectonic settings. The principles and the practical application of sequence stratigraphy are studied, together with discussion on how this improves our understanding of carbonate reservoirs. Diagenetic changes that carbonate rocks undergo are also analysed, and, where possible, set within a sequence stratigraphic framework. 1 Processes and environments of carbonate sediment formation. Carbonate factories. Depositional environments, facies for attached carbonate platform; Florida Shelf. Exercises: Modern carbonate grains and facies; the building blocks for limestones Depositional environments and facies of unattached carbonate platforms and Bahamas carbonate slopes. Facies models for rimmed carbonate platforms. Exercises: Caicos platform; environments and facies, Sedimentary (graphic) log construction 2 Depositional environments, facies and facies models for carbonate ramps. Arabian Gulf Case Study Exercise on graphic log and cross section construction and interpretation Principles of carbonate sequence stratigraphy. Exercises: Outcrop and seismic sequence stratigraphy of carbonates 3 Application of carbonate sequence stratigraphy to rimmed shelves and to ramps. Exercises: Seismic sequence stratigraphy of carbonates Major Controls on Occurrence of carbonate platforms and genetic classification 4 Near-surface diagenetic environments of limestones and dolomitization, and relations to depositional sequences Burial diagenetic environments of limestones and dolomites. Diagenetic trends. Exercise: Diagenesis and porosity evolution of carbonates 5 Porosity and permeability evolution in carbonate reservoir rocks, rock types, and classification of carbonate reservoirs. Exercise: Diagenesis and porosity evolution of carbonate reservoir rocks Carbonate platforms, facies and reservoirs through geological time Sequence Stratigraphy: Principles and Applications This workshop presents the concepts and practical applications of sequence stratigraphy for petroleum exploration and production. All concepts are illustrated with field examples of seismic, well-log, core, and outcrop data. In-class exercises emphasize the recognition of sequence stratigraphic surfaces and systems tracts on well-log cross-sections, seismic lines, and outcrop profiles. The points of agreement and difference between the various sequence stratigraphic approaches (models) are discussed, and guidelines are provided for a standardized process-based workflow of sequence stratigraphic analysis. This enables the practitioner to eliminate nomenclatural or methodological confusions, and apply sequence stratigraphy effectively for facies predictions in exploration and production. 1 Daily Title: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY o Topic 1: Stratal stacking patterns o Topic 2: Shoreline trajectories o Topic 3: Historical developments o Topic 4: Workflow of sequence stratigraphic analysis Discussion of stratal stacking patterns, which are key to the definition of all units and surfaces of sequence stratigraphy. Shoreline trajectories: forced regressions, normal regressions, transgressions. Exercise: Observation of stratal stacking patterns on 2D seismic data. 2 Daily Title: SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC SURFACES o Topic 1: Types of stratal terminations o Topic 2: Sequence stratigraphic surfaces o Topic 3; Other types of stratigraphic contacts Definition of all sequence stratigraphic surfaces: subaerial unconformity, correlative conformity, basal surface of forced regression, regressive surface of marine erosion, maximum regressive surface, maximum flooding surface, transgressive surface of erosion. Distinction between sequence stratigraphic surfaces and other types of stratigraphic contacts. Exercise: Identification of sequence stratigraphic surfaces on a well-log cross-section. 3 Daily Title: SYSTEMS TRACTS o Topic 1: Systems tracts in downstream-controlled settings o Topic 2: Systems tracts in upstream-controlled settings o Topic 3: Economic potential of all types of systems tract Distinction between downstream-controlled setting (conventional sequence stratigraphy) and upstream-controlled settings which are beyond the influence of relative sea-level changes. Definition and examples of all types of systems tracts. Exercise: Identification of systems tracts on 2D seismic data and well-log cross-sections. 4 Daily Title: SEQUENCE MODELS o Topic 1: Depositional sequences o Topic 2: Genetic stratigraphic sequences o Topic 3: Transgressive-regressive sequences o Topic 4: Parasequences The points of agreement and difference between the various sequence stratigraphic approaches (models) are discussed, and guidelines are provided for a standard process-based workflow of sequence stratigraphic analysis. This enables the practitioner to eliminate nomenclatural or methodological confusions, and apply sequence stratigraphy effectively for facies predictions in exploration and production. Examples of sequences in all depositional settings. 5 Daily Title: SCALE IN SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY o Topic 1: The importance of scale: exploration vs. production development o Topic 2: Sequence stratigraphic hierarchy o Topic 3: Moving forward to a standard application of sequence stratigraphy Discussion of scale, selected by the practitioner and/or imposed by data resolution, as key issue which determines the practical applications of sequence stratigraphy (e.g., petroleum exploration vs. petroleum production development). Latest developments in the definition of sequence hierarchy systems; definition of hierarchical orders. Exercises: Observation of sequence stratigraphic units and bounding surfaces at different scales. Global Tectonics and Geological Prospecting Tools for Exploration This hands-on 5-day course utilizes lectures and practical exercises to introduce key concepts of an effective petroleum system with emphasis on global tectonics and how basins are formed, filled and deformed, and on learning key geologic prospecting tools for exploration. The Atlantic Margin basin is used as an example to discuss the elements of the petroleum system. Clastic rocks are emphasized (especially turbidites) but carbonate rocks and evaporite formation is also reviewed. Discussions include introduction of key aspects of source rock, migration, overburden rock, reservoir characteristics including porosity, permeability and architecture, seal rock characteristics, structural and stratigraphic traps, timing and preservation elements. Prospecting Tools covered in this course include petrophysics for exploration geoscientists , bio- and sequence stratigraphic applications, essential log correlation workflow and log annotation methods, data contouring and mapping, applications of multiple working hypotheses, and utilization of direct hydrocarbon indicators to exploration. Students correlate various logs that illustrate faulted sections and straitigraphic variation, and create contour maps and learn to properly present faults in map view. 1 Objectives and Overview of Module and Course Five Laws of Geology: Uniformitarianism, Superposition, Original Horizontality, Cross Cutting Relationships, and Walther's Law Petroleum Systems – components, definitions, and assessment Basin Formation Plate Tectonics and the Wilson Cycle Source Rocks in Conventional and Unconventional Petroleum Systems Basin Filling – clastics Carbonates and Dolomitization Clastic Depositional Models - Fluvial 2 Clastic Depositional Models – Delta and Deepwater Turbidite Walthers Law Faulting as migration pathways and/or seals Review of Fault Types Hydrocarbon Traps - Good and Bad Salt Deformation Review of exploration in Salt Basins Sutures and Inclusions Rubble Zones and Imaging below Salt 3 Petrophysics for Exploration Rock and Fluid Properties Porosity and Permeability Pressure and Compaction Compartmentalization Tool Applications Biostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy Accomodation Space Stratigraphic Sequences HST, FSST, LST, TST Carbonate vs Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy 4 Log Correlation Purpose and Methods Correlations for Structure Geological Scenarios for correlation What to Correlate? Log Headers Facies Correlation and accounting for Faults Using Seismic to aid correlation 5 Mapping and Contouring – Definitions and Principles Creation of various types of contour map Multiple working hypotheses Contouring with Faults Isopach Maps DHI Concepts for Exploration Seismic interpretation and Anomolies Gas Effects and Bright Spots Prospecting with DHI's 4D Seismic and Electromagnetic Data Subsurface Facies Analysis - Integrating Borehole Images & Well Logs with Petrophysical and Seismic Data to Develop Geologic Models This course has been designed for geoscientists, engineers and other technical staff who want to analyze and integrate image, log and dip data to enhance their understanding of exploration plays and field development. It leans heavily on worked class examples and case studies. Instead of interpreting image and dip data in isolation, the course shows how they can be used in conjunction with cores, other logs, modern depositional analogues, outcrop studies and hi-resolution seismic data to refine reservoir models. 1 Acquisition & processing, and structural analysis Image & Dip Acquisition & Processing - Measurement principles and wellsite acquisition - Value of high resolution image data - Image processing & display - Dip computation and trouble shooting Exercise with some real data - Image & dip processing and LQC - Image description & interpretation steps - Comparison with core photos and description Guide to Image Quality - Exercises in bad borehole and tool responses Structural analysis using image & dip data - Structural dip trends and structural dip removal - Unconformities - Normal and growth faults - Reverse and thrust faults - Are faults sealing? 2 Sedimentology & continental settings Stratigraphic analysis using image & dip data, 60 slides - Depositional environments & facies analysis - Lithofacies from log & image data - Lithology, grain size variation, need to integrate - Geometry - Sedimentary structures - Paleocurrent directions - Integration & modelling at the field level Eolian (wind-blown) sediments - Sedimentary structures & dune forms - Complexities in deposition setting & stratigraphic section - Building reservoir model & populating with data - Outcrop studies as input to reservoir simulation Fluvial (river) sediments - Fluvial settings (various models) - Braided system lithotypes & sedimentary features - Meandering system lithotypes & sedimentary features - Point bar development (predictions) - Channel models as developed by geostatistics - Channel models constrained by outcrop analogues - Correlation and sequence stratigraphic considerations - Case study from Kalimantan; integrating high resolution seismic attributes with petrophysical data to fine tune a depositional model and site new wells; radically increasing oil recovery in the field. 3 Deltaic, coastal and shelf settings Deltaic sediments - Delta classifications and models - Associated sand geometries - Image & dip character in distributary fronts & channels - Case study from South Sumatra basin; developing a play concept to identify most prospective area within structural closure Coastal & shelf sediments - Interrelation of coastal & shelf depositional settings - Facies variation in prograding coastal sequences - Idealized dip and grain motifs in bar/barrier sands - Image & dip examples in shelf bar and barrier island sands - Channel sands in a tidal setting - Chasing channels by integrating image and seismic data - Case study: distinguishing channel from bar sands in tidal settings, and its importance on reservoir characteristics - Use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to distinguish sand units - Using high resolution images to interpret thinly bedded reservoirs Correlation Exercise - Environments make a difference 4 Carbonate shelf & Deepwater Sequence Stratigraphy - Parasequences & basin margin architecture - Aid to correlation & modelling Carbonate shelf sediments - Carbonate models and facies in coastal and shelf settings - Carbonate reefs, and orienting reefal trends - Porosity enhancement and reduction - Sequence stratigraphy in carbonate sequences - Generating reservoir model from outcrop data and 3D seismic Case study: Kazakhstan Tengiz-Kashagan Trend Case study: Carbonate rock typing; Corelab approach Deepwater sediments - Deepwater sediment depositional models - Image & dip character in proximal & distal settings - Orienting channel sands using image & dip data - Using outcrop work for forward modelling to better interpret seismic, and understand reservoir production behavior Case study: Improving log interpretation by modelling thin bed effects 5 Fractured reservoirs Fracture systems - Fracture types; open, healed, vuggy, syneresis - Natural or induced; borehole breakout & tensile fractures - Impacts on planning fracture jobs for stimulation - Fracture orientation Fractured Reservoir case studies - Case study: Identifying & evaluating producing horizons in fractured basement offshore Vietnam - Case study: Simulation of a producing fracture system in a Mid-East Giant Geothermal systems in volcanic rocks (optional) - Lithofacies in volcanic settings - Case study: Using images to resolve reservoir delineation and development issues.