Fundamentals of Petroleum Geomechanics

 This course covers the necessary fundamentals of geomechanics for wellbore applications; the origin of stresses in the subsurface and how in situ stresses can be understood from wellbore data; mechanical properties such as rock strength, and the origins of pore pressure and how it is measured and estimated. The course then proceeds to show how these data are applied through the Mechanical Earth Model to critical problems in exploration and field development. There are detailed case studies on wellbore stability sand production and hydraulic fracturing. The course also includes an introduction to reservoir geomechanics, showing the geomechanical influence of pressure changes in the reservoir.

At the end of the course attendees will be able to:

  • Use routinely collected and specialized data to make basic geomechanical calculations for wellbore stability, sand production and hydraulic fracturing
  • Select and design data acquisition for geomechanical studies
  • Interpret image data to identify basic geomechanical behaviour

This course is also available as a 3 day class without classroom exercises 

1

Fundamentals and experimental rock mechanics

  • The stress tensor, units, principal stresses, strain, resolving stresses on a plane, construct Mohr's Circle and analyze stress, elasticity and elastic properties, effective stress, internal friction, cohesion, modes of rock deformation, unconfined compressive strength, Mohr-Coulomb failure
  • Experimental rock mechanics, uniaxial and triaxial testing, thick wall cylinder tests, scratch testing, true triaxial tests, tensile tests, analyze results

 

2

Stress, Pore pressure and the Mechanical Earth Model

  • Principal earth stresses, regional and local stresses, World Stress Map, Andersonian classification of faults, overburden stress, horizontal stress orientation, borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, image logs, horizontal stress magnitudes, leak-off tests, fracture gradients
  • Origins of pore pressure, methods for measurement, methods for estimation, vertical and horizontal methods, Eaton’s method, real-time approach
  • Concept and construction of the Mechanical Earth Model, data requirements and types of input data

 

3

Wellbore geomechanics and wellbore stability

  • Wellbore geomechanics, state of stress in the wellbore
  • Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore, the effect of well azimuth and inclination, simple calculations
  • Wellbore deformation in fractured rock masses and non-classical rock failures

 

4

Applications

  • An introduction to planning for wellbore stability and real time operations
  • Sand production and management, causes of sand failure, experimental evidence, an introduction to screenless completion design for sand prevention
  • Hydraulic fracturing, process of hydraulic fracturing, geomechanical factors effecting fracture development and simple calculations
  • Reservoir behaviour, an introduction to compaction and subsidence, well integrity, use of 4D seismic in geomechanics and the effects of injection (pressure maintenance, waste disposal and gas storage)

 

5

Case study practical

  • Working in teams, an opportunity to put into practice the geomechanics learnt during the week to design a wellbore stability plan for a proposed high angle well.

 

Geomechanics for Drilling

Participants in this course will learn about the fundamentals of Geomechanics and the role Geomechanics plays in well programming and operations.  This course will cover the stress tensor, experimental rock mechanics, principal earth stresses, and the origins of pore pressure (including methods for measurement of pore pressure).  Other topics that will be covered in this course include the concept and construction of Mechanical Earth Models (MEM), wellbore geomechanics, modes of rock deformation, and wellbore deformation.  

This course will use lectures and case studies to help participants amplify their learning and skills gained throughout this course.  Participants will learn from experts in the Geomechanics field about how to plan for wellbore stability, implement geomechanic solutions while drilling, the concepts of wellbore strengthening, and drill bit mechanics.  Participants will also use case study exercises to build a MEM and apply it to a proposed high angle production well from a field development plan.

1

Fundamental of Rock Mechanics

  • Fundamentals of rock mechanics
  • How is geomechanics used to design wells and support drilling?
  • The stress tensor
  • Experimental rock mechanics

The course will begin with an introduction to the fundamental aspect of rock mechanics and a review of experimental results that have been published in industry papers.  After this participants will see how geomechanics can be used to design wells and support drilling operations. Participants will then learn about the stress tensor in particular units, principal stresses, strain, resolving stresses on a plane, constructing Mohr's Circle and analyzing stress, elasticity and elastic properties, effective stress, and other rock mechanic fundamentals. Lastly the attendees will learn about experimental rock mechanics, uniaxial and triaxial testing, thick wall cylinder tests, scratch testing, true triaxial tests, and tensile testing.

2

Earth Stress and Pore Pressure

  • Principal earth stresses
  • Origins of pore pressure
  • Methods to measure pore pressure

The second day will begin with participants taking a look at stress in the Earth, including principal earth stresses, regional and local stresses, the world stress map, Andersonian classification of faults, overburden stress, horizontal stress orientation, borehole breakouts, and drilling-induced tensile fractures.  Other topics that participants will learn about include image logs, horizontal stress magnitudes, leak-off tests, and fracture gradients. Participants will then examine the detailed origins of pore pressure, measurement methods, methods for estimation, vertical and horizontal methods, Eaton’s method, and a real-time pore pressure approach.

3

Mechanical Earth Model, Wellbore Geomechanics, and Wellbore Stability

  • Concept and construction of the Mechanical Earth Model (MEM)
  • Wellbore geomechanics
  • Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore
  • Wellbore deformation in fractured rock masses

The third day participants will focus primarily on the Mechanical Earth Model (MEM), wellbore geomechanics, and wellbore stability issues.  This day will begin with participants reviewing the concepts and construction of the MEM, including detailed data requirements and required input data types.  With a working MEM, the participant will then learn how to manage wellbore geomechanics and the state of stress in and around the wellbore.  Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore, the effects of well azimuth, and inclination will also be covered.  Participants will also learn about basic geomechanics calculations.  The day will end with participants reviewing wellbore deformation in fractured rock masses and non-classical rock failures.

4

Drilling Geomechanics

  • Planning for wellbore stability
  • Implementation of geomechanics while drilling
  • Wellbore strengthening
  • Drill bit mechanics

On day four participants will learn about downhole drilling geomechanics with particular emphasis being placed on planning for wellbore stability and integration of geomechanics into the drilling plan.  Participants will then investigate the intricacies of implementing real-time geomechanics while drilling.  Participants will also look at how geomechanics is used to provide wellbore strengthening in order to avoid mud losses in depleted formations.  To conclude this day, participants will review drill bit mechanics.

5

Geomechanics Case Studies

  • Build Mechanical Earth Model (MEM)
  • Design wellbore stability plan
  • Field development plan

On the last day, participants will work in teams in order to put into practice the geomechanics knowledge and skills learned during the week to build an actual MEM.  Participants will then use the MEM to design a wellbore stability plan for a proposed high angle well from a field development plan.

Practical Petroleum Geomechanics with Techlog

This course covers the fundamentals of geomechanics for wellbore applications. It covers the topic of the origin of stresses in the subsurface and how in situ stresses can be understood from wellbore data. Mechanical properties such as rock strength and elastic properties are introduced and their determination in the laboratory as well as from log data is discussed. The origins of pore pressure and how it is measured and estimated is discussed and shown. The course then proceeds to show how all discussed concepts can be put together to build a Mechanical Earth Model and how this is used to examine critical problems in exploration and field development. Throughout the course the theoretical lectures are accompanied by practical exercises using the latest Schlumberger Techlog Geomechanics modules as well as pen-and-paper exercises. 

Learning Objectives

At the end of the course attendees will be able to:

  • Use routinely collected and specialized data to make basic geomechanical calculations for wellbore stability and sand production
  • Build 1D Mechanical Earth models from data in existing wells
  • Perform Wellbore stability predictions and sand production predictions and apply to well planning

Key Learning Elements

Fundamental understanding of well-centric petroleum geomechanics.

  • Data requirements for geomechanical studies
  • The use of the 1D Mechanical Earth Model in geomechanical studies
  • Perform 1D Wellbore stability and sand production predictions

 

1

Fundamentals of well-centric geomechanics

  • Value of well-centric geomechanics in the petroleum industry
  • Introduction to geomechanics concepts: The stress tensor, units, principal stresses, strain, resolving stresses on a plane, construct Mohr's Circle and analyze stress, elasticity and elastic properties, effective stress, internal friction, cohesion, modes of rock deformation, unconfined compressive strength, Mohr-Coulomb failure
  • Techlog Introduction and basic exercises: General overview of Techlog, data loading and QC, building a mechanical stratigraphy

 

2

Rock mechanical properties and introduction to the Mechanical Earth model

  • Introduction to experimental rock mechanics, uniaxial and triaxial testing, scratch testing, tensile tests, results analysis
  • Concept and construction of the Mechanical Earth Model, data requiremens and types of input data
  • Techlog exercises on modeling mechanical properties and calibration with core data
  • Techlog basics of Acoustic log processing and QC
  • Introduction to Python in Techlog and how to script locally-calibrated rock property correlations

 

3

1D Stress modeling (overburden, pore pressure and horizontal stresses)

  • Principal earth stresses, regional and local stresses, World Stress Map, Andersonian classification of faults, overburden stress, horizontal stress orientation, borehole breakouts, drilling-induced tensile fractures, image logs, horizontal stress magnitudes, leak-off tests, fracture gradients
  • Origins of pore pressure, methods for measurement, methods for estimation, vertical and horizontal methods, Eaton’s method, real-time approach
  • Techlog exercises on modeling overburden, pore pressure and horizontal stress magnitude
  • Introduction to Techlog image log functionalities and stress direction analysis

 

4

Wellbore stresses and wellbore stability

  • Wellbore geomechanics, state of stress in the wellbore
  • Modes of rock deformation in the wellbore, the effect of well azimuth and inclination, simple calculations
  • An introduction to planning for wellbore stability and real time operations
  • Techlog exercises to perform wellbore stability analysis from existing well trajectory, wellbore stability sensitivity analysis (safe mud weight window versus wellbore orientation), history matching of wellbore stability prediction to wellbore failure observations
  • Introduction to reservoir geomechanics and the effects of pressure depletion on stresses
  • Techlog exercises on horizontal stress estimation in depleted zones

 

5

Completions geomechanics

  • Sand production prediction and sand management, causes of sand failure, experimental evidence, an introduction to screenless completion design for sand prevention
  • Introduction to Hydraulic fracturing, process of hydraulic fracturing, geomechanical factors effecting fracture development and simple calculations
  • Techlog exercise to use 1DMEM for sand production prediction

 

Geomechanics Applications in Shale Gas

Geomechanics plays a critical role in successfully optimizing shale gas exploitation. This course can help understand the essential aspects of geomechanics in shale gas enabling an engineer or geoscientist to make better field development decisions. A unique feature of this course is that it gives a unified geomechanics approach combining theoretical, laboratory (core testing) and field aspects to effective exploitation of unconventional reservoirs. This course covers the necessary fundamentals of geomechanics as applied to shales, heterogeneity and natural fractures in shale and their influence on stimulation, the process of Tight Rock Analysis (TRA) and heterogeneous mechanical earth model, critical elements in designing hydraulic stimulation and horizontal completions, and best completion practices. Throughout the course, case study examples from unconventional reservoirs will be shown to reinforce the Geomechanical concepts.

1

Geomechanics Fundamentals - In the morning the course will demonstrate the importance of geomechanics in unconventional reservoirs. The course will then cover the fundamental aspects of geomechanics including basic concepts of stress, strain, mechanical properties, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio (static and dynamic), in-situ stresses and rock failure. Consequently, the participants will be exposed to geomechanics applications such as pore pressure prediction, wellbore stability and hydraulic fracturing.

In the afternoon the focus will be on shale heterogeneity evaluation. In this section, the participants will be exposed to shale characterization methodologies from a geomechnaics perspective such as petrography and XRD. The course material will then cover shale anisotropy – microscopic to core to field scale. Consequently, workflows will be discussed as to how these geomechanics principles can be used to evaluate the lateral variations from well-to-well. The course will then cover TIV anisotropy, scratch testing and variation in mechanical properties in vertical and horizontal directions. Finally, end the day with Tight Rock Analysis (TRA) process.

2

Geomechanics Data Sources and Mechanical Earth Model – In the morning, the participants will be exposed to recommended data acquisition program for an effective geomechanics analysis. The course will then cover the workflows for estimating anisotropic parameters using acoustic azimuthal anisotropy (sonic scanner) and introduction to building Mechanical Earth Model (MEM).

In the afternoon, the participants will be exposed to key geomechanical elements affecting hydraulic stimulation design and a successful shale completion strategy (design aspects). Furthermore, the course will also cover shale hydraulic fracturing and completion strategy including horizontal completions design, frac fluid and proppant properties (field aspects). Finally end the day with an introduction to microseismic and hydraulic fracturing monitor-ing (HFM).

Rock Physics - Integrating Petrophysical, Geomechanical, and Seismic Measurements

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Rock Physics is a key component in oil and gas exploration, development, and production. It combines concepts and principles from geology, geophysics, petrophysics, applied mathematics, and other disciplines.  Rock physics provides the empirical relationships, understanding and theory to connect petrophysical, geomechanical and seismic data to the intrinsic properties of rocks, such as mineralogy, porosity, pore shapes, pore fluids, pore pressures, stresses and overall architecture, such as laminations and fractures. Rock physics is needed to optimize all imaging and reservoir characterization solutions based on geophysical data, and to such data to build mechanical earth models for solving geomechanical problems. Attendees will obtain an understanding of the sensitivity of elastic waves in the earth to mineralogy, porosity, pore shapes, pore fluids, pore pressures, stresses, and the anisotropy of the rock fabric resulting from the depositional and stress history of the rock, and how to use this understanding in quantitative interpretation of seismic data and in the construction of mechanical earth models. A variety of applications and real data examples is presented.

1

  • Introduction
    • What is Rock Physics?
    • Rock Physics and Petrophysics. What’s the difference?
  • Hooke’s law, anisotropy and elastic wave velocities
  • Sedimentary rocks as heterogeneous media
  • The concept of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and effective elastic properties
  • Voigt/Reuss and Hashin-Shtrikman bounds
  • Modulus-porosity relations for clean sands
  • Critical porosity and mechanical percolation
  • Gassmann’s equations and fluid substitution
  • Fluid properties and mixtures 

 

2

  • Diagenetic and sorting trends in velocity-porosity data
  • Velocity-porosity models for shaly sands
  • Empirical relations between velocity and porosity, clay content, etc.
  • Properties of sand-clay mixtures
  • Velocity-porosity relations for shales
  • Relations between VPand VS
  • Rock compressibilities and relation of 4D seismic to well testing
  • Reflection coefficients and AVO
  • Elastic impedance
  • Rock physics templates
  • Effective medium and effective field theories
  • Velocity-porosity relations for carbonates

 

3

  • Biot theory
  • Patchy saturation
  • Squirt flow
  • Sediment compaction and the state of stress in the Earth
  • Pore pressure and the concept of effective stress
  • Poroelasticity
  • Application to pore pressure prediction 

 

4

  • Fracture gradient and 3D stress modeling
  • Effect of stress on seismic body waves
  • Third-order elasticity
  • Granular media and discrete element methods
  • Displacement discontinuity methods
  • Stress sensitivity of sandstones
  • Stress sensitivity of shales
  • Stress perturbations around a borehole
  • Determination of velocity variations around a borehole from advanced sonic logging
  • Application to wellbore stability
  • Reservoir geomechanics and stress effects in 4D seismic monitoring 

 

5

  • Fractured reservoirs
  • Hydraulic fracture propagation in presence of natural fractures
  • Seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs
  • Modeling the response of a fractured reservoir
  • Rock physics models for fractures
  • Shales and unconventional reservoirs
  • Anisotropy of shales
  • Rock physics modeling of kerogen in organic-rich shales
  • Effect of anisotropy on AVO
  • Microseismic and effect of azimuthal anisotropy on propagation of hydraulic fractures

 

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