Introduction to Petrophysics - Including Traditional and Reservoir Petrophysics

Introduction to Petrophysics covers fundamental petrophysical relations, with a primary focus on understanding water saturation, fluid contacts and free water level.  Participants learn formation evaluation based on pore-geometry and petrophysical rock types.

Additional topics include fundamentals of core analysis, wireline log and open-hole interpretation. Applied work sessions (Excel) and participant presentations (PowerPoint) are key cornerstones that help participants gain confidence in using these methods. Several case studies are used to show the importance of integration between geology, geophysics petrophysics and reservoir engineering. 

Petrophysical rock types are introduced in the 3 day version, capillary pressure and saturation height models are introduced in the 4 day version and flow units are introduced in the 5 day version.

This course can be offered as a 3, 4 or 5 day option.  The course outline of proposed topiscs, provides additional details. 

Typically, over 30 percent of the course is “learn by doing, which includes workshops, participant presentations and group discussions”.

 

1

Why petrophysics is important and how it is the key to building reservoir models 

  • An overview of how petrophysics fits into a reservoir characterization work flow
  • Pre-course technical assessment 
  • Petrophysical properties and how they relate to static and dynamic models are discussed to show the importance of cross discipline integration (reservoir fluid properties, drive mechanism, volumetrics and recovery factors)
  • Introduce the concept of using logs to identify reservoir fluids (oil, gas and water)
  • Introduce a visual conceptual 3-Line log analysis technique
  • Workshop - Quick Look Log Analysis 
  • Workshop - What is cubic packing  

 

2

Why core-log integration helps improve our understanding of reservoir rocks 

  • Introduce Routine Core Analysis 
  • Porosity (total, effective includes both obvious and finer details
  • Log based porosity (sonic, density, neutron and NMR Porosity)
  • Core and log integration (porosity and lithology)
  • Introduce the concept of petrophsyical rock types 
  • Workshop – Facies, initial rock types and core sampling
  • Workshop - Using core data to confirm lithology and reservoir qiality 

 

3

Petrophsyical rock types are relate storage and flow capacity with capillary pressure 

  • Introduce the ARchie Method and concept
  • Determining petrophysical rock types using pore throat radius (Winland, Pittman and FZI approaches)
  • “Water saturation is not an accident…..”
  • Workshop - Winland petrophysical rock types
  • Introduction to capillary pressure, fluid contacts and free water level
  • Workshop - Capillary Pressure
  • Workshop - How facies and petrophsyical rock types are used together 

 

4

A practical way to understand capillary fluid contacts and free water level

  • Introduce high pressure mercury injection as a pore geometry evaluation tool
  • Introduce how to determine the number of petrophsyical rock types needed in a field and well
  • Workshop - determine the number of petrophsyical rock type
  • Workshop - discuss the various ways to average petrophsyical data
  • Introduce the height above free water concept
  • Workshop - Convert Lab Capillary Pressure to Height Above Free Water
  • Introduce the concept of Saturation Height Modeling
  • Workshop - Well Review using Petrophsyical Rock Types and Saturation Height Model (Excel) 

 

5

Using Advanced Flow Units as An Integration and Well Evaluation Tool 

  • Introduce the concept of flow units
  • Workshop - using basic flow units
  • Introduce the concept of advanced flow units (determine the PRT, what units will produce water etc.)
  • Workshop - Well evaluation using advanced flow units
  • Special Topic 1
  • Final cpurse technical assessment
  • Course wrap up 

 

 

Petrophysics Aspects of Shale Gas

This course provides a general introduction to the use of well logs to evaluate organic shale reservoirs. Primary focus will be on estimating basic components of reservoir quality—TOC, primary mineralogy, porosity, saturation, permeability, hydrocarbon in place. Additional focus will be on estimating basic components of completion quality—minimum horizontal stress for isotropic and anisotropic systems. The combination of the two criteria will be used to identify, qualify and pick a lateral landing point for an organic shale.

The curriculum is designed for petroleum engineers and geologists with limited expertise in petrophysics. Most of the relevant algorithms can be estimated either with a calculator or instructor-provided spreadsheets. Organic shale logs will be evaluated using these tools throughout the week.

Goal will be for the students to determine viability of an organic shale as a reservoir with a basic well logging suite. With the inclusion of a sonic log, the students will be able to determine stress and the optimum lateral landing point for horizontal wellbores. The use of basic spreadsheets will be employed to quantify reservoir and completion quality of a shale reservoir.

1-

  • Definition of productive organic shale reservoir
  • TOC/Kerogen identification and quantification

 

2-

  • Adsorbed gas quantification using Langmuir isotherm
  • Quantification of mineralogy through log evaluation and relationship to producibility

 

3-

  • Porosity—effective vs. total and their estimation
  • Hydrocarbon saturation calculation and accounting for clay water

 

4-

  • Estimation of pore gas hydrocarbon with adsorption correction
  • Delineation of shale gas beds and identification of potential pay

 

5-

  • Determination of stress for completion design
  • Estimation of producibility based on porosity, permeability, fractures, pressure etc.
  • Determination of lateral landing points using stress profiles and rock quality

 

 

 

Integrated Reservoir Modeling: Interpretation, Evaluation, and Optimization with Petrel

 

This five day interactive and practical course will help participants to use geological modeling to produce realistic volumetric estimations for hydrocarbon reservoirs.  It will show how new operational data and revised interpretations, such as a new well or a recently discovered fault, can be identified and incorporated into models at any point in the workflow.

This course will introduce the procedures and workflow for building a 3D model, regardless of the software available to the modeling team.  In other words, this will be an attempt at a best practice approach to a complex and varied workflow. There will be a particular emphasis on integrating static and dynamic reservoir properties with the geological facies model.  Exercises will be done using industry standard modelling software (Petrel), although it should be emphasized that the purpose of the course is methodology and not software operation.

Relevant industry case studies and practical applications will be reviewed throughout the course.  Participants will gain an understanding of the key challenges associated with building effective 3D reservoir models from interpretation and design to quality assurance and optimization of results.

Participants will understand the science and workflows behind building consistent 3D reservoir models including fluid distribution, permeability, compartments and volumetric estimation. They will learn how integrate data from cores and logs and how to upscale this data into geological and flow simulation models that will have a high impact on field development and production scenarios.

1-Conceptual Design and Workflow

  • Reservoir envelope: top and base structure
  • Internal framework: correlation scheme
  • Reservoir compartments: fault geometry
  • Reservoir architecture: facies model
  • Petrophysical property distribution
  • Volumetric Assessment

When planning a reservoir modeling project, the ultimate purpose of the model must be defined.  To this end the geological model should address all of the above points.  On the first day, participants will learn about the retention of relevant fine-scale detail through upscaling.  The process of building a 3D reservoir model will always follow the same general workflow, regardless of the tools available to the modelling team.  Each of the steps will be outlined in the course with an appreciation of the required input data, associated uncertainties, and likely deliverable and its use. The database used for the exercises will be from a real field that includes two different clastic reservoir types with different modeling challenges.

2-Reservoir Framework

  • Depth conversion uncertainty
  • Model surface selection and quality control
  • Fault modelling and compartments
  • Stratigraphy and correlation
  • Grid construction

In volumetric models the greatest uncertainty is usually the gross rock volume at the top structure map and the hydrocarbon contact.  Depth conversion, where well data can be sparse, leads to much of this uncertainty.   Structural models that result in over complexity, much of which cannot be modelled, may drive seismic interpretation.  Participants will learn how to decide what structural elements to include, which can be a source of much debate.  Likewise too much well-to-well correlation can over science a model especially when still in development and drilling surprises are common, so it will be covered on this day as well.

3-Reservoir Architecture

  • Depositional models and facies analysis
  • Core-log integration
  • Basic statistics
  • Objects and indicators
  • Seismic conditioning
  • Facies modelling

Participants will learn about the different clastic and carbonate depositional environments and how to best characterize them for subsequent modelling.  The dependence on statistics will be introduced as a way to demonstrate the different methods of facies modelling available.

4-Property Modeling in 3D

  • Basic petrophysics
  • Rock typing
  • More basic statistics
  • Porosity models
  • Saturation models
  • Permeability models

Running through the course will be the theme of petrophysics, always calibrated to the geology, as a way to distribute reservoir properties.  Participants will be shown simple rock typing methods that are readily applicable to 3D models.  Particular attention will be paid to saturation height methods that accurately distribute fluids through the model.

5-Uncertainty and Upscaling

  • Geological model analysis
  • Hydrocarbon volumes initially in place
  • Drainable volumes
  • Simulation grid construction
  • Property upscaling
  • Multiple scenarios, realizations, and ranking

What makes a good static model will be discussed.  The methods of interrogating and analyzing the results described before addressing the thorny question of upscaling for dynamic simulation will also be covered.

 

Integrated Reservoir Analysis

 

The goal of Integrated Reservoir Analysis is for participants to understand the concepts and develop subsurface skills to integrated analysis of rock, pore, and fluids from various sources.  Participants gain an appreciation of working with various scales (micro to mega) to solve problems associated with identifying and exploiting reserves. Concepts gained will allow participants to apply tools for analysis of the underlying uncertainty and assumptions used in many reservoir analysis techniques. A subsurface integration process model is presented which provides a multidiscipline methodology for solving reservoir problems, from facies, petrophysical rock typing, flow unit characterization and an introduction to capillary pressure saturation height modeling.  Throughout the course the participants are encouraged to think about "big picture" volume in-place, static modelling and dynamic reservoir simulation.

1

  • Introduction, integration work and thought process
  • Rock Types/Flow units and reservoir characterization
  • Applied examples and deliverables
  • Geologic framework, mineralogy, reservoir compartmentalization, formation evaluation
  • Introduction to static and dynamic reservoir simulation
  • Introduction to the conceptual 3-Line log analysis method
  • Applied hands on workshops

 

2

  • Introduction to reservoir and lithofacies
  • Participant presentation 1 - Facies workshop results
  • Carbonate pore-geometry, thin-section and petrophysical description workshop and presentation 
  • Introduction to Routine Core Analysis
  • Core porosity
  • Workshop - Golfball challenge
  • Overview of well log porosity, total and effective porosity

 

3

  • Overview of core permeability (absolute, effective, Klinkenburg corrected and relative permeability)
  • Basics of net mean stress
  • Fundamentals of Petrophysical rock types
  • Overview and the concept of practical capillary pressure and applications
  • Workshop - Capillary pressure analysis
  • Saturation distributions from rock types, and capillary pressure data
  • What is Winland (Pittman) pore throat radius and why is it important
  • Workshop - Winland Plots by Facies
  • Workshop - Simple core analysis using Winland based method

 

4

  • Clastic - Facies and Petrophysical rock types case studies
  • Carbonate - Facies and Petrophysical rock type case studies
  • Capillary pressure and pore geometry, stress and reservoir performance, petrophysical quick scan analysis
  • Permeability, relative permeability and wettability
  • Archie saturation, cementation, and saturation exponent (optional)
  • Workshop - Well evaluation with core and log data
  • Participant presentations of workshop results

 

5

  • Introduction to saturation height methods (SHM)
  • Wettability and why it is important (optional)
  • SHM case studies both clastic and carbonate
  • Introduce flow unit concept, analysis and workshop
  • Final well analysis workshop - facies, core-log petrophysical rock types, flow units and saturation height model Individual and presentations

 

Advanced Core and Log Interpretation

This intermediate course will reflect on the collection and integration of data that is required for formation evaluation and building a model of the reservoir.   The key objectives of core and log calibration will be covered to include porosity, lithology, saturation, and petrophysical rock types.  Practical workshop sessions will be used to determine porosity methods and integration with core logs.  The workshops will continue on to cover the findings and the correct petrophysical parameters to use for creating mathematical transforms used in constructing 3D static models.  Several in-class workshops will be used to enhance participant learning.  Participants must have a laptop or computer (with Excel software) to use during the course workshops.

1-Core and Log Integration

  • Core and log integration workflow process
  • Core and log integration importance
  • Fundamentals of log analysis
  • 3-Line interactive evaluation workshop

The first day of this course will focus mainly on core and log integration.  Core and log integration importance and workflow process will be covered.  Participant will learn about log analysis using the NExT 4-line interpretation method.  The day will conclude with a 4-line interactive evaluation workshop. 

2-Porosity and Log Evaluation of Sw

  • Textural core analysis and integration with the geologic framework
  • Determination of porosity
  • Log evaluation of Sw
  • Porosity evaluation workshop and evaluating Sw workshop

Day two will cover porosity and the log evaluation of Sw.  Textural core analysis and integration with geologic framework will be discussed along with how to determine porosity, both total and effective.  Using Rw, Ro, and Rwa will also be discussed.  The day will end with two workshops, one over porosity evaluation and the second over evaluating Sw.

3-Petrophysical Rock Types, Water Saturation, and Capillary Pressure

  • Petrophysical rock types and water saturation
  • Petrophysical rock type workshop
  • Applied capillary pressure and calibrating water saturation
  • Capillary pressure workshop

Participants will learn about petrophysical rock types and water saturation on the third day as well as capillary pressure.  Applied capillary pressure and calibrating water saturation will also be covered.  Workshops for this day will include a petrophysical workshop and a capillary pressure workshop.

4-Reservoir Facies

  • Core and log integration workshop
  • Reservoir facies
  • Reservoir facies characterization workshop

Day four will focus mainly on reservoir facies.  This day will also include two workshops one over core and log integration and the other over reservoir facies characterization.  

5-Flow Units and Permeability Prediction

  • Pore geometry, clays, and the relationship to water saturation
  • Flow units and permeability prediction
  • Permeability prediction workshop
  • Flow unit workshop

On day five participant will learn about pore geometry and clays and their relationship to water saturation methods from logs.  Flow units and permeability prediction will also be discussed.  The day will end with workshops over flow united and permeability prediction.

6-Well Evaluation Workshop and Final Presentations

  • Well evaluation workshop
  • Final presentation of workshop learnings from participants

The last day will consist of a well evaluation workshop where participants will integrate lithology, core and log porosity, Sw and capillary pressure, and permeability predictions into logs.  They day will end with final presentation of workshop learning from participants.

Cased Hole and Production Log Evaluation

This course covers a wide range of topics that cover Open Hole formation evaluation and cased hole production logging and reservoir monitoring. The course covers the following topics:

General: This covers tool conveyance in Open hole and in cased hole. It also covers well completion and depth control.

Open hole: A general overview of open hole logging to obtain porosity, lithology and water saturation. Open hole log data and essential as an input into cased hole log evaluation.

Reservoir monitoring: This cover Pulsed Neutron Log applications to obtain water saturations using Neutron Capture mode and Carbon/Oxygen mode. Resistivity measurements behind the casing is also presented for conductive casings (steel) and non-conductive casings (plastic, fibre-glass). Finally cased hole Wireline formation testing is presented that is used to obtain pressure/permeability/sampling behind the casing.

Production logging is covered to obtain oi/gas/water production at any selected interval in vertical/horizontal/deviated wells.

Well integrity will cover leak detection using temperature/noise/Oxygen activation logging. Cement evaluation will also be covered in details using Ultrasonic and acoustic logging. Permanent temperature fibre glass sensors will also be presented. Finally corrosion theory and measurements will be presented indetails outlining the different tools used.

1

a-  General

  • Well completions
  • Tool conveyance in Open Hole and Cased Hole
  • Depth Control

 b- Open Hole Logging: Tools and their applications

  • Logging tools an dtheir applications: GR; Density- Neutron , Resistivities in invaded and uninvaded zone.  
  • Open Hole Interpretations (Archie- DW)

Workshop on Basic Open Hole Interpretation

2

c- Reservoir Monitoring

  • Neutron Interaction with fotmations and fluids
  • Pulsed Neutron Logging (PNL)
  • PNL Capture mode
  • Log-Inject-Mode for determining ROS

Workshop on Saturation Monitoring (Sw) from Neutron Capture Model

3

c- Reservoir Monitoring- cont

  • C/O mode
  • Resistivity behind conductive (steel) casing
  • Resistivity behind non-conductive (plastic) casing
  • Pressure measurement and sampling behind the casing

 d- Production Logging:

  • Production Logging overview
  • Slippage velocity

Workshop on Saturation Monitoring (Sw) from C/O Mode

4

e- Production Logging: Cont..

  • Measuring fluid velocities
  • Measuring fluid hold-up
  • Interpretation of Single phase, two phase and 3 phase flow
  • Production logging in horizontal wells: tools an dapplications

Workshop on Production logging

5

f- Well Integrity

  • Leak detection using temperature/noise/oxygen-activation
  • Cement Evaluation: Acoustic and ultrasonic cement evaluation logs
  • Corrosion Monitoring

Workshop on leak detection, corrosion monitoring and cement evaluation.

Basic Logging Methods and Formation Evaluation

This practical concept drive course will focus on openhole data acquisition and interpretation.  The course will cover all the basics of log data acquisition and interpretation.  New high technology tools and their application will also be reviewed.  These technologies will include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Logging While Drilling (LWD), and optional topics, including wireline formation testing and borehole imaging.  There will be daily workshops that cover the topics presented each day. 

Upon successful completion of this course, participants should have a good understanding of log data acquisition, interpretation techniques, how to apply log quality control practices, types of high-technology tools, and the appropriate applications of that technology in formation evaluation.  Participants should also have a working knowledge of openhole log interpretation and be able to confidentially compute important reservoir parameters such as porosity, lithology, shaliness, and water saturation.

1

Reservoirs and Logging

  • Reservoir rock and basic logging
  • Life of a well
  • Spontaneous Potential (SP)
  • Natural Gamma Rays (GR) and the six basics of resistivity

On the first day, participants will take a brief look at reservoir rocks and the basics of logging.  They will learn about the life of a well and the spontaneous potential.  Natural Gamma Rays and the six basics of resistivity will also be covered.  The day will end with an interpretation workshop over SP and GR applications to obtain water salinities, shale volumes, and clay type.

2

Types of Measurements

  • Acoustic measurements
  • Neutron porosity measurement
  • Density measurements
  • Deep reading resistivity (Rt)

Day two will focus on the different types of measurements.  Acoustic and neutron porosity measurements will be covered, along with density measurement.  Deep reading resistivity (Rt) will also be discussed.  The day will end with an interpretation workshop over estimating porosity and lithology.  

3

Rxo, Archie’s Equation, and Vsh

  • Shallow reading resistivity (Rxo)
  • Archie's Equation and determining saturation
  • Computing the value of Vsh
  • Interpretations for reservoir characterization

The third day will focus on Rxo, Archie’s Equation, and Vsh.  Participants will learn about shallow reading resistivity (Rxo), Archie’s Equation and determining saturation, and the computing of the value of Vsh.  Interpretations for reservoir characterization will also be covered.  The day will end with a workshop over estimating water saturations.  

4

Carbonate Challenge and Wireline Formation Testing

  • Computing Sw in the presence of Shale
  • The carbonates challenge
  • Wireline Formation Testing (WFT)
  • The NExT 3-Line Interpretation Method

Day four will teach participants about computing SW in the presence of Shale, Wireline Formation Testing, and the NExT 3-Line Interpretation Method.  Participants will also learn about the carbonates challenge on this day.  Day four will conclude with pressure gradient interpretation and 3-line visual log workshops.

5

NMR, MWD, LWD, and Borehole Imaging

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR)
  • Borehole imaging
  • Measurement while drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD)

On the last day participants will learn about Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMR), borehole imaging, Measurements While Drilling (MWD), and Logging While Drilling (LWD).  The course will conclude with an end of course test to quantify improvements and the course benefits for each participant.

Rock Physics - Integrating Petrophysical, Geomechanical, and Seismic Measurements

 

Rock Physics is a key component in oil and gas exploration, development, and production. It combines concepts and principles from geology, geophysics, petrophysics, applied mathematics, and other disciplines.  Rock physics provides the empirical relationships, understanding and theory to connect petrophysical, geomechanical and seismic data to the intrinsic properties of rocks, such as mineralogy, porosity, pore shapes, pore fluids, pore pressures, stresses and overall architecture, such as laminations and fractures. Rock physics is needed to optimize all imaging and reservoir characterization solutions based on geophysical data, and to such data to build mechanical earth models for solving geomechanical problems. Attendees will obtain an understanding of the sensitivity of elastic waves in the earth to mineralogy, porosity, pore shapes, pore fluids, pore pressures, stresses, and the anisotropy of the rock fabric resulting from the depositional and stress history of the rock, and how to use this understanding in quantitative interpretation of seismic data and in the construction of mechanical earth models. A variety of applications and real data examples is presented.

1

  • Introduction
    • What is Rock Physics?
    • Rock Physics and Petrophysics. What’s the difference?
  • Hooke’s law, anisotropy and elastic wave velocities
  • Sedimentary rocks as heterogeneous media
  • The concept of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and effective elastic properties
  • Voigt/Reuss and Hashin-Shtrikman bounds
  • Modulus-porosity relations for clean sands
  • Critical porosity and mechanical percolation
  • Gassmann’s equations and fluid substitution
  • Fluid properties and mixtures 

 

2

  • Diagenetic and sorting trends in velocity-porosity data
  • Velocity-porosity models for shaly sands
  • Empirical relations between velocity and porosity, clay content, etc.
  • Properties of sand-clay mixtures
  • Velocity-porosity relations for shales
  • Relations between VPand VS
  • Rock compressibilities and relation of 4D seismic to well testing
  • Reflection coefficients and AVO
  • Elastic impedance
  • Rock physics templates
  • Effective medium and effective field theories
  • Velocity-porosity relations for carbonates

 

 

3

  • Biot theory
  • Patchy saturation
  • Squirt flow
  • Sediment compaction and the state of stress in the Earth
  • Pore pressure and the concept of effective stress
  • Poroelasticity
  • Application to pore pressure prediction 

 

4

  • Fracture gradient and 3D stress modeling
  • Effect of stress on seismic body waves
  • Third-order elasticity
  • Granular media and discrete element methods
  • Displacement discontinuity methods
  • Stress sensitivity of sandstones
  • Stress sensitivity of shales
  • Stress perturbations around a borehole
  • Determination of velocity variations around a borehole from advanced sonic logging
  • Application to wellbore stability
  • Reservoir geomechanics and stress effects in 4D seismic monitoring 

 

5

  • Fractured reservoirs
  • Hydraulic fracture propagation in presence of natural fractures
  • Seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs
  • Modeling the response of a fractured reservoir
  • Rock physics models for fractures
  • Shales and unconventional reservoirs
  • Anisotropy of shales
  • Rock physics modeling of kerogen in organic-rich shales
  • Effect of anisotropy on AVO
  • Microseismic and effect of azimuthal anisotropy on propagation of hydraulic fractures

 

Integrated Reservoir Modeling: Interpretation, Evaluation, and Optimization with Petrel

This five day interactive and practical course will help participants to use geological modeling to produce realistic volumetric estimations for hydrocarbon reservoirs.  It will show how new operational data and revised interpretations, such as a new well or a recently discovered fault, can be identified and incorporated into models at any point in the workflow.

This course will introduce the procedures and workflow for building a 3D model, regardless of the software available to the modeling team.  In other words, this will be an attempt at a best practice approach to a complex and varied workflow. There will be a particular emphasis on integrating static and dynamic reservoir properties with the geological facies model.  Exercises will be done using industry standard modelling software (Petrel), although it should be emphasized that the purpose of the course is methodology and not software operation.

Relevant industry case studies and practical applications will be reviewed throughout the course.  Participants will gain an understanding of the key challenges associated with building effective 3D reservoir models from interpretation and design to quality assurance and optimization of results.

Participants will understand the science and workflows behind building consistent 3D reservoir models including fluid distribution, permeability, compartments and volumetric estimation. They will learn how integrate data from cores and logs and how to upscale this data into geological and flow simulation models that will have a high impact on field development and production scenarios.

1

Conceptual Design and Workflow

  • Reservoir envelope: top and base structure
  • Internal framework: correlation scheme
  • Reservoir compartments: fault geometry
  • Reservoir architecture: facies model
  • Petrophysical property distribution
  • Volumetric Assessment

When planning a reservoir modeling project, the ultimate purpose of the model must be defined.  To this end the geological model should address all of the above points.  On the first day, participants will learn about the retention of relevant fine-scale detail through upscaling.  The process of building a 3D reservoir model will always follow the same general workflow, regardless of the tools available to the modelling team.  Each of the steps will be outlined in the course with an appreciation of the required input data, associated uncertainties, and likely deliverable and its use. The database used for the exercises will be from a real field that includes two different clastic reservoir types with different modeling challenges.

2

Reservoir Framework

  • Depth conversion uncertainty
  • Model surface selection and quality control
  • Fault modelling and compartments
  • Stratigraphy and correlation
  • Grid construction

In volumetric models the greatest uncertainty is usually the gross rock volume at the top structure map and the hydrocarbon contact.  Depth conversion, where well data can be sparse, leads to much of this uncertainty.   Structural models that result in over complexity, much of which cannot be modelled, may drive seismic interpretation.  Participants will learn how to decide what structural elements to include, which can be a source of much debate.  Likewise too much well-to-well correlation can over science a model especially when still in development and drilling surprises are common, so it will be covered on this day as well.

3

Reservoir Architecture

  • Depositional models and facies analysis
  • Core-log integration
  • Basic statistics
  • Objects and indicators
  • Seismic conditioning
  • Facies modelling

Participants will learn about the different clastic and carbonate depositional environments and how to best characterize them for subsequent modelling.  The dependence on statistics will be introduced as a way to demonstrate the different methods of facies modelling available.

4

Property Modeling in 3D

  • Basic petrophysics
  • Rock typing
  • More basic statistics
  • Porosity models
  • Saturation models
  • Permeability models

Running through the course will be the theme of petrophysics, always calibrated to the geology, as a way to distribute reservoir properties.  Participants will be shown simple rock typing methods that are readily applicable to 3D models.  Particular attention will be paid to saturation height methods that accurately distribute fluids through the model.

5

Uncertainty and Upscaling

  • Geological model analysis
  • Hydrocarbon volumes initially in place
  • Drainable volumes
  • Simulation grid construction
  • Property upscaling
  • Multiple scenarios, realizations, and ranking

What makes a good static model will be discussed.  The methods of interrogating and analyzing the results described before addressing the thorny question of upscaling for dynamic simulation will also be covered.

Openhole and Cased Hole Data Acquisition and Interpretation

This course is covers the whole range of Open Hole, Cased Hole and Production logging tools and their applications. This is a wide ranging course that effectively covers all the logging techniques both Open Hole and Cased hole. The course starts with an overview of the reservoir rock properties and reservoir fluids. This is an essential factor as a background to the various logging techniques and their interpretations. Open hole logging tool principles will also be presented. This is an important step to understanding and applying open hole log interpretations and log quality control. Log interpretations will cover quick look interpretations and interpretations in complex shale bearing formations. Cased hole logging will also be presented in two parts.

The first part will deal with Well Integrity covering Cement Evaluation, Corrosion Monitoring and Leak Detections in Casings and tubings. The second part will cover water saturation monitoring behind the casing. The second part will cover tools such as Pulsed Neutron Logging, Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) logging and Cased Hole Formation Resistivity. Production Logging will be reviewed next. This will cover the new technology tools such as Optical Sensors (gas hold up), Electric Sensors (Water Hold-up) and the FloScan tool (Casing Cross-sectional coverage). These tools are a prerequisite for production log evaluations in deviated and horizontal wells. Production log evaluation will also be made in two-phase and three-phase flow regimes. Log Quality Control is reviewed for all the tools and is reflected in the quality of all the interpretations. There will be an interpretation workshop at the end of each section using real log data. The participants will be divided into teams of 3-4 participants and will work together on the interpretation process. This will promote team work and knowledge sharing.

 

1

  • Basics of Logging
  • Reservoir Rock Properties
  • Reservoir Fluids
  • Open-Hole Logging
  • Logging Tools’ Principles
  • An outline of the logging tools principles
  • Nuclear-Tools; Density, Neutron Logs Acoustic Logging
  • Resistivity Logging: Shallow and Deep reading Resistivity Logs.
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

 

2

  • Open Hole Log Interpretations
  • Shale Evaluation
  • Shale effects on evaluation of Sw
  • Quick Look Interpretations Interpretations in Shaly Formations
  • The Dual Water Model Open Hole Log Interpretation Workshop

 

3

  • Well Integrity
  • The Cementing Process CBL – VDL (CBL for average Casing to cement bond & VDL for Cement to formation bond)
  • Ultrasonic (fine azimuthal measurements for differentiation between micro annulus & channelling)
  • SCMT for average & azimuthal cement bond below production tubing without killing well.
  • Isolation Scanner application to evaluate to contaminated cement and light weight cement and imaging of single and double casings.
  • Cement Evaluation Workshop
  • Casing Corrosion Corrosion Principle- Corrosion Mechanisms
  • Corrosion Logging: Ultrasonic, Multi-Finger Calipers, Electromagnetic (ETT) Casing Leak Detection
  • Casing Corrosion Workshop

 

4

  • Reservoir Monitoring
  • Basics of Nuclear physics used in Reservoir Monitoring
  • Inelastic Capture: C/O ratios used to calculate SW
  • Pulsed Neutron Capture: Neutron Capture mode used to obtain Water saturation
  • CHFR: Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Reservoir Monitoring Workshop
  • Production Logging
  • Production Logging Tools
  • Production Logging Tool types Optical Sensors Electric Sensors Flowmeters FloScan Imager

 

5

  • Production Log
  • Interpretations Estimating fluid hold-ups: Water Hold-up, Oil hold-up and gas-hold-up
  • Two Phase Flow
  • Three Phase Flow
  • Production Logging Workshop

 

highlights

Mini Master of Art Degrees in Political Science Mini Master of Art Degrees... A Mini Master of Arts in Political Science gives students the...
Mini Masters Programs in International Management Mini Masters Programs... Students pursuing an advanced degree in international management...
Mini Masters Programs in Humanities Studies Mini Masters Programs... A Mini Master in Humanities is a field of study that includes...