Introduction to Well Completions

The course introduces basic concepts of Completion Engineering. It familiarizes the attendants with conventional completions and equipment. Intelligent completions (ICV and ICD) are also explained.

At the end of the course, attendants will understand the criteria for completion selection, the functions of typical completion equipment and accessories.

Day 5 consists of a visit to local Schlumberger base to visualize completion equipment.

1

  • Introduction to the Course.
  • Initial quiz.
  • Revision of Reservoir concepts.
  • Characterization of reservoir fluids.
  • Well Completion methods. 

 

2

  • Flow in porous media.
  • Well deliverability (exercises).
  • Completion effects.
  • Flow in pipes.
  • Choke performance.
  • System analysis.

 

3

  • Casing suspension.
  • Tubing selection. 
  • Tubing design.
  • Tubing connections.
  • Upper completion accessories.
  • Safety valves.
  • Artificial Lift. 

 

4

  • Sand Control.
  • Intelligent completions. 
  • Use of slickline equipment during well completion.

 

5

  • Visit to Schlumberger base for visualization of completion equipment.
  • Final quiz.

Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Design and Quality Control

This 5-day course discusses, at skilled level, the hydraulic fracturing process, detailing Design Methodology, Execution & Quality Control and Evaluation. Acid Fracturing is also discussed; upon completion of the course, Participants will be able to integrate multi-disciplinary teams to select well candidates for fracturing, establish fracturing objectives and discuss with Service Companies the full Design-Execution-Evaluation process.

The course includes numerous exercises to help the understanding of concepts and their practical application.

1

  • Introduction
  • Initial Quiz
  • Overview of Fracturing Treatments
  • Selection of candidates
  • Geomechanics I
  • Geomechanics II
  • Fracturing Treatment Objectives

The first day of the course is dedicated to the selection of wells candidates to hydraulic fracturing completions, their objectives and the conversion of sonic log data to elastic parameters through exercises to promote a good understanding of the concepts. A Quiz will help the instructor to adapt his approach to the type and level of the Audience.

2

  • Micro-frac & Step-Rate Testing
  • Hydraulic Fracturing Models
  • Near Wellbore Geometry
  • Fracturing FLuids

During the second day, Participants will learn how to properly determine fracturing gradients in field tests using exercises, designing and interpretating micro-fracturing tests and step-rate-tests; selecting the adequate fracturing models; and, selecting the type of fracturing fluids appropriate to hydraulic fractures.

3

  • Fracturing Fluids Leak-off
  • Proppants
  • Fracture Treatment Design

The third day discusses Fracturing Design: how fluids leak-off influence the geometry of the fractures and how to select the right proppants. Participants will exercises in fracturing fluids rehology.

4

  • Log Data
  • Minifrac
  • Production Prediction
  • Refracturing
  • Tip Screen Out

This day is dedicated to the design and interpretation of the calibration treatment (mini-frac); the design of re-fraturing operations; the prediction of production of fractured wells, using exercises; and the design of hydraulic fractures in high permeable formations (tip-screen-out operations).

5

  • Acid Fracturing
  • Perforating Requirements
  • Fracture Mapping
  • Fracturing Evaluation
  • Supervision and Quality Control
  • Round Table
  • Final Quiz

The last day of the course is dedicated to recommendations for fracturing operations in carbonates (acid fracturing) and for perforating wells to be fractured; a description (with real examples) of micro-seismics; how to evaluate fracturing operations; and how to supervise and control the quality of fracturing treatments.

At the end of the day, Participants and Instructor discuss in a round table possible improvements to the course, and perfrom a Final Quiz to evaluate progress.

Subsurface Surface Production Optimization

A production system is the system that transports reservoir fluid from the subsurface to the surface and separates it into oil, gas, and water. From there the oil and gas streams are treated if necessary and prepared for sale or transport from the field. Any water produced will also treated and prepared for disposal or reinjection into the reservoir. The basic elements of a production system are the reservoir, perforations, production packer, production casing, tubing, wellhead, choke, flowline, separator, and tank.

This course will provide participants with the knowledge of integrated subsurface surface production optimization.  During this course, participants will also learn about nodal analysis and the identification of major pressure losses from the reservoir to separator.  The use of specialized software to identify constraints and to propose recommendations to optimize the field will also be covered.

1

Integrated Production Systems and Production Processes 

  • Production system loops
  • Well completion and production methods
  • Production well test     
  • Gathering and processing facilities

The first day will cover an overview of the production system from the reservoir to the surface.  The integrated production system will be reviewed.  Participants will learn about the different production completions, lifting methods, gathering and separation systems, and production well tests.  Processing facilities will also be discussed.

2

Nodal Analysis 

  • Main components of pressure drop
  • Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR): reservoir, completion
  • Subsurface to surface system
  • Flow rates in pipes and restrictions

On the second day, participants will learn about nodal analysis, to include the different main components of pressure drops, such as static, friction, and acceleration.  Inflow performance relations (IPR), tubing performance curve, subsurface to surface system graphs, wellhead flow, wellhead flow curve, and gas well production behavior will also be covered.  The day will end with a discussion on flow rates in pipes and restrictions, as well as flow line curve.   

3

Subsurface Surface Production Operation

  • Identification of restrictions and correctives actions
  • Performance management
  • Advanced optimization applications
  • Integrated subsurface surface automation concept       

Subsurface surface production operations will be the focus on the third day.  Specific topics that will be covered on this day include integrated operation procedures, best practices, identification of restrictions and corrective actions, and the production optimization using automation technology.  The identification of added value to business, available and operated production, performance management, control and follow up systems will also be covered.  The day will end with a discussion on advanced optimization applications, integrated subsurface surface automation concepts, and compression plants deferred reduction case.        

4

Integrated Application System and Production System Modeling 

  • Integrated application systems
  • Software used in Industry
  • Production system modeling
  • Examples using PIPESIM

Day four will cover the integrated application system and production system modeling.  Participants will learn about the used in the oil industry for integrated production system.  Well model to surface model integration, data acquisition and control, and case studies will be covered for production system modeling.  The day will end with participants seeing examples using PIPESIM.

5

Technological Trends and Integrated Information Systems

  • Well instrumentation technology
  • Oil and gas production applications
  • Smart wells and fields

On the last day, participants will learn about the technological trends for integrated production optimization.  The trends discussed will include smart wells, well instrumentation technology, and smart fields.  Integrated information systems will also be discussed.  The integrated information environment, problems of integration, and production data management will be covered on this day as well.   

Workovers and Completions

This 5-day course emphasizes the role of engineers and field operators in planning and executing the workover operations to maintain and increase field production and thus add to the profitability and recoverable reserves. It also emphasizes the significance of the team concept as a factor in optimizing operations success. The course is highlighted with open discussions and problem solving shared by the instructor and participants.

Topics covered include safety regulations, operation schedules, procedures and sequences, equipment to be used, service companies’ role, contingency plans and emergency procedures. By the end of this course, attendees will have an understanding of the industry’s advanced technologies in field of designing and executing workover jobs in their respective operations. They will have knowledge of selecting the appropriate method for the particular operation and perform the task in a safe and efficient manner.

 

1

  • Workover and completion methodology
  • Risk management
  • Well problems and well control

 

2

  • Cement bond logs
  • Perforating
  • Fracture Gradient

 

3

  • Sand control management
  • Cement squeezing
  • Acidizing

 

4

  • Rigless workovers
  • Coiled tubing
  • Fishing

 

5

  • Completion management
  • Open and cased hole operations
  • Artificial lift systems

 

Advanced Slickline Operations

The course consists of theoretical sessions in the classroom delivered by experienced professionals discussing tools and operations; the participants will also have various practical exposure sessions using the Slickline well/pad and having hands on sessions using the Slickline tools in the workshop.

The class will be 50% in classroom and 50% practical in the workshop and wellsite pad, including access to an actual well.

 1

AM

  • Arrival and welcome to the Course (Induction).
  • QUIZ (Basic Slickline Training Course) To be used as a pre-course quiz to check the SL knowledge of the participants.
  • QUIZ-Review of the SL Basic Training  Course and open discussions.
  • SL Units/Wire/PCE/SL Tool String/Certifications/What must be controlled.
  • A.R.C/SDP/RIR's -Safety (Slides) 

PM

  • Oilfield Calculations
  • SL Units/Wire/PCE/SL Tool String/Certifications/What must be controlled.
  • A.R.C/SDP/RIR's -Safety (Slides) 

Day 2

AM

  • (Work shop) Wire Tests- Practicals
  • (Work shop) Pressure Control Equipment - Practicals
  • (Work shop) Basic toolstring components - Practicals.
  • (Work shop) Pulling Tools - Practicals

 

PM

  • Work shop - Shifting Tools - practicals.
  • Work shop - Open/Close SSD's on the simulator.
  • Work shop - Kickover tools practicals.
  • Work shop - Set and Retrive Gaslift Valves in the SPM on the simulator.
  • Workshop (Otis- Baker-Petroline and PCE locks) - practicals

 

3

AM

  • (Well Site) Rig-up Slickline (Open Hole)
  • (Work site) Winch, p'packs Practical - RIH/POOH. (Locate LN with Gauge Cutter)
  • (Work site) RIH Set and Retrive FB-2 Baker 2.75" - Jar Practicals.
  • (Work site) Open/Close SSD's - Jar Practicals.

PM

  • (Work site) - Set and Retrive Gaslift Valves.
  • (Work site) RIH Set and Retrive Plugs Baker & Otis.

 

4

AM

  • Fishing - Theory. Top wire Calculations. Fishing Scenarios.
  • (Work shop) - (Flopetrol wire cutter- on simulator).
  • (Work shop) - Fishing Tools.

 

PM

  • QUIZ 
  • Oilfield Calculations

 

 5

AM

  • QUIZ -Review.
  • Transport back to accomodation

 

PM

  • Appraisal's
  • Round Table / Diplomas

 

Electric Submersible Pumps - Application Engineering - Practical Training

The class will be welcomed to the training course. This will include a brief outline of the history of the course and the main areas that will be reviewed. An overview of the training will be discussed with participants to determine if the agenda meets the needs of those attending the training. The goals and objectives of each client will be recorded to ensure the training meets expectations. If there are some requests not covered in the agenda, where possible, the agenda will be adjusted to accommodate additional requests.

1

Introduction / orientation / Welcome: The class will be welcomed to the training course.  This will include a brief outline of the history of the course and the main areas that will be reviewed.  An overview of the training will be discussed with participants to determine if the agenda meets the needs of those attending the training. The goals and objectives of each client will be recorded to ensure the training meets expectations. If there are some requests not covered in the agenda, where possible, the agenda will be adjusted to accommodate additional requests.

HSE: Safety for the class will be of the upmost importance. Sections of the training that require PPE or special attention will be reviewed.  This will also include who to contact if any concerns arise.

Artificial Lift Review: This section focuses on the fundamentals of Artificial Lift and how fluid moves through a reservoir, how it behaves in a well and what characteristics of the well have the biggest impact on Artificial Lift. This may be a review from some, but ensuring the basics are correct is essential for the understanding of the balance of the training. Each form of Artificial Lift has advantages and disadvantages – it is important that the five main forms of Artificial Lift, including Rod Pump, PCP, Jet Pump, Gas Lift and ESP be reviewed to determine which form of lift is best suited for various reservoir conditions.

Plant Tour 1

ESP Display Room

DHE Machining Center: Head & Base, Housing & Shaft Machining this part of the tour goes through the finishing process where the parts from the foundry are finished into usable impellers and diffusers.  This will also include the machines of heads, bases and motor potheads.

2

ESP Equipment

  1. Pump: There are 8 elements of the pump that need to be designed including Stage Type, Number  of Stages, Stage Material,  Bearing Material,  Bearing Spacing, Shaft Material, Housing Material  and Construction Configuration. Each of these will be reviewed in detail to determine the best design for specific environments.

Plant Tour 2

Stator Winding, Auto-Shaft Straightening

Motor Assembly, Pump & Protector Assembly

3

  1. Motor: How the motor works will be reviewed from the basic principles of electricity. Without this understanding how downhole gauges/sensors operate, which is discussed in the following section will not be possible. Motor insulation, rating and temperature limitations will be reviewed.

Plant Tour 3

Foundry  & Finishing: (PPE Required – Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Fume Mask and Headset with Communication). First part of this tour is a review of the foundry area which starts in the Green Sand Lab; where the quality  of the cast parts are controlled including metallurgy, hardness, finish, etc. The foundry area will be toured where raw materials such as iron, zinc, nickel, chromium, etc. are melted and formed into impellers and diffusers.  It will include a review and observation of the casting process from start to finish.

4

  1. Protector/Seal: The 5 main functions of a protector will be reviewed including Pressure Equalization, Barrier Protection, Thrust, Torque and Oil Reservoir for the motor.  The three types of protectors will be reviewed including Positive Seal, Labyrinth and Bellows.

Plant Tour 4

Final Test Well (FAT & VPTS)

Quality Control (QC)

5

  1. Power Cable: Worldwide failure rates indicate that approximately half of all ESP failures occur in the cable string. In this section each of the components of the cable including conductor, insulation, barrier, jacket and armor will be reviewed.Software

Overview: There will be two Design Software packages reviewed.  The first is a basic pump design software package that focuses on quick pump selection. This software can be used to perform basic evaluation on pump performance and comparison between different pump manufactures.

The second software package is Design Pro, one of the most advanced ESP design program available. During this training various ESP Design scenarios will be evaluated, the students will be provided with Laptops to use the software packages. The designs will become increasingly more difficult as familiarity with the software increases.

Plant Tour 5

Gas Lift Manufacturing

Q&T Facility Plant Tour 

6

  1. Intake: The intake portion will include standard intakes, gas separation devices and gas handling devices. This section will also include why gas is such a problem for ESP’s, how gas behaves in the well bore and true efficiency of gas separators.
  2. HPSIn this section Horizontal Pumping Systems will also be reviewed.

Plant Tour 6

Gauges Manufacturing Plant Tour

VSD/Transformer/Gauge Test 

7

  1. Sensor: 5. Sensor: Downhole sensors are becoming more common as their functionality and reliability improve. This section will include how the gauge operates and what can cause premature failure of a gauge.

ESP Design (Hand Calculations): The fundamentals of design work and a hand design will be conducted using two methods. The first design will use the traditional Bottoms Up Method that focuses on TDH and the second method will use the newer Top Down method that focuses on Pressure. This is important so that output for ESP software packages can be understood and explained.

Oil Well Simulator: The simulator will be used extensively this day to simulate / visualize / replicate a number of operational condition in the well.

8

Surface Equipment: There are usually only 4 main components to the surface equipment including the Transformer, Switchboard, VSD and Motor Controller. Each of these will be reviewed in detail, but extra time will be spent on the VSD. The issue of Harmonics, both back onto the power system and down to the ESP, is often not well understood – this section of the training will remove any mystery surrounding harmonics. Also, the benefits and drawbacks of different types of VSD’s will be reviewed.

Trouble Shooting: Class room training will include a cause and effect session where students are required to analyze what will happen to the ESP under varying condition so ESP performance can be interpreted.

This will be followed by why trouble shooting is so difficult and some steps that can be taken to help analyze data is such a way as to interpret what is happening downhole.

Following on will be a DIFA (Dismantle Inspection and Failure Analysis) discussion on how to get the most of the dismantle process to ensure that failures do not occur the same way.

9

Monitoring, Run Life and Questions: there are two critical areas when it comes to determining if monitoring will be successful – the first is the collection of quality data and the second is what is done with the data. The value of various data will be discussed and then a review of the stages available that allow for the highest production increase from that data.

The economics of ESP’s will be discussed focusing on the areas of runlife, incentive contacts, tendering processes and types of contracts that could be implemented.

This will also be a day where problems that attendees of the class can bring forward and an analysis of the data can be done as a group.

Quiz: Almost every day there will be a quiz to ensure that the learnings which occurred during each section have been attentively listened to. This is a learning technique as it has been shown that when testing is expected the retention rate is improved Training will conclude at the end of the second Thursday

Artificial Lift Technology

The course will provide basic knowledge of Artificial Lift. Review of fluid properties, multiphase flow regimes and all lifting methods: rod pumps, progressive cavity pumps (PCP), gas lift and electrical submersible pumps (ESP),  Discussion of alternate deployments and multi-sensor applications for surveillance and optimization. Strategies and best practices for field production optimization are discussed. The effectiveness for NODAL systems analysis for lifting performance optimization is demonstrated. Workshop format with presentations, discussions and hands-on exercises.

1

Fluid Flow Fundamentals

  • Black Oil PVT
  • Inflow Performance Relationships
  • Nodal Analysis Technology

 

2

  • Overview of Artificial Lift
  • Comparison of Artificial Lift Systems
  • Artificial Lift Selection
  • Beam (Rod) Pump Systems
    • Surface and Subsurface Equipment
    • Power Requirements

 

3

  • Beam (Rod) Pump Systems (Cont)
    • Dynamometers and Troubleshooting
    • Optimization
    • Exercise for Designing a SRP System
  • Progressive Cavity Pumps System
    • Applications
    • Surface and Subsurface Equipment
    • Geometry of Downhole Pump
    • Fit (Interference), Viscosity, Slip
    • Elastomers
    • Power Requirement
    • Exercise for Designing a PCP System

 

4

  • Electric Submersible Pumps (ESP)
    • Applications, Design and Selection of ESP's
    • Surface Equipment
    • Subsurface Equipment
    • Installation and Operations
    • Exercise

 

5

  • Gas Lift Systems
    • Principles of Gas Lift
    • Gas Lif Valves
    • Design and Operations
    • Intermittent vs. Continuous Systems
    • Exercise

 

Electric Submersible Pumps - Advanced

The Electric Submersible Pump System (ESP) is considered an effective and economical means of lifting large volume of fluids from great depths under a variety of well conditions. Over the years, the ESP companies, in conjunction with the major oil companies, have gained considerable experience in producing high viscosity fluids, gassy wells, high temperature wells, etc. With this experience and improved technology, wells that were once considered non-feasible for submersibles are now being pumped economically. This course is designed to provide recommendations for designing ESP systems for special applications including gassy wells, production of fluids with solids, viscous oil, dual completions, Ytool applications, shrouded motors, production through the annular, high temperature and recirculation. Pump curves (Head vs. Flowrate) for several pump speeds are generated in class as an exercise.

Course Objectives: Provide in depth knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the Electric Submersible Pumps used in aggressive environment applications. Participants will learn well optimization and troubleshooting.

"The Oil Well Laboratory, used in this course, is a physical simulator designed to enhance the learning process. The apparatus is an "oil" well physical simulator of a small scale. It uses water and air in place of oil and gas, allowing to perform and demonstrate most of the normal operations in a real well."

1

  • Review of Reservoir Performance
  • Productivity Index – Darcy Exercise
  • Vogel Exercise
  • Centrifugal Pump Curve Development
  • Applications 3.1 Standard 3.1 Non-Standard
  • Equipment Selection - Exercise

 

2

  • Affinity Laws & Nodal Analysis 4.1. Exercise
  • Amperimetric Charts
  • Design of High Gas Application - Exercise

 

3

  • ESP Design for Highly Deviated Wells
  • Viscous Fluids and Emulsion Application
  • Production of Abrasive Fluids

 

4

  • New Technologies
  • CrossFlow
  • ESP – TCP – Ytool
  • Hybrid ESP – Gas Lift Application
  • Recirculation System

 

5

  • Troubleshooting
  • Evaluation of Specific Cases Using Appropriate Software (DesignPro, Prosper, SubPump, etc.)
  • Equipment Handling
  • Introduction to ESP Failure Analysis

 

Advanced Production Data Analysis and Nodal Analysis

Predict the rate at which a well should be capable of producing, given reservoir and fluid properties, wellbore configuration, and flowing wellhead pressure. Identify which components of the reservoir/completion/wellbore system are restricting performance; analyze production data to find permeability, skin factor, and drainage area; forecast future performance from historical production trends and from known reservoir properties

1

  • Inflow Performance - Oil Wells
  • Darcy's Law - Pseudosteady State Flow
  • Vogel's IPR, Dietz Shape Factors
  • Gas Wells, Rawlins & Schelhardt
  • Jones' IPR Relationship Between Jones' IPR and R

 

2

  • Transient IPR Curves
  • Nodal & Well Orientations
  • Pressure Drop Across the Completion
  • Partial Penetration
  • Deviated Wells
  • Hydraulically Fractured Wells
  • Perforated Completions
  • Gravel-Pack Completions
  • Multiphase Flow in Tubing
  • Liquid Holdup
  • Flow Regimes
  • Critical Rate to Lift Liquids
  • Useful Correlations in Nodal Analysis

 

3

  • Systems Analysis Graph
  • Sensitivity Analysis
  • Reservoir & Completion
  • Tubing Performance
  • Choice of Node Location
  • Surface Wellhead Chokes
  • Subsurface Safety Valves
  • Production Data Analysis
  • Conventional Decline Curve Analysis
  • Arps Equations
  • Exponential; Harmonic and Hyperbolic Decline
  • Fetkovich Type Curve Analysis

 

4

  • Transient Flow
  • Boundary-Dominated Flow
  • Arps qi, Di, n
  • Material Balance for Various Reservoirs
  • Reciprocal Productivity Index
  • Transient vs Pseudosteady State Flow

 

5

  • Estimating Skin Factor and Permeability from Transient Flow
  • Estimating Drainage Area from Pseudosteady State Flow
  • History Matching Production Data
  • Forecasting Future Performance

 

Introduction to Well Completions

The course introduces basic concepts of Completion Engineering. It familiarizes the attendants with conventional completions and equipment. Intelligent completions (ICV and ICD) are also explained.

At the end of the course, attendants will understand the criteria for completion selection, the functions of typical completion equipment and accessories.

Day 5 consists of a visit to local Schlumberger base to visualize completion equipment

1

  • Introduction to the Course.
  • Initial quiz.
  • Revision of Reservoir concepts.
  • Characterization of reservoir fluids.
  • Well Completion methods. 

 

2

  • Flow in porous media.
  • Well deliverability (exercises).
  • Completion effects.
  • Flow in pipes.
  • Choke performance.
  • System analysis.

 

3

  • Casing suspension.
  • Tubing selection. 
  • Tubing design.
  • Tubing connections.
  • Upper completion accessories.
  • Safety valves.
  • Artificial Lift. 

 

4

  • Sand Control.
  • Intelligent completions. 
  • Use of slickline equipment during well completion.

 

5

  • Visit to Schlumberger base for visualization of completion equipment.
  • Final quiz.

 

Sand Control

The course discusses concepts related to the selection of sand control method and treatment design; conventional low-pressure techniques are reviewed, while frac-pack and high-rate-water-pack are discussed and compared. The course analyses sand control best methods for sand control in horizontal drains and water injectors. Sand management is examined and its techniques are compared with sand control’s. Quality control procedures for sand control execution and job evaluation are reviewed and discussed. 

Main topics are: Basic Rock Mechanics, Sand Prediction, Methods for Sand Control, Gravel Pack Design, Screenless methods, High-Rate-Water-Pack, Frac Pack, Execution and Evaluation. 

1

  • Introduction to the course
  • Revision of principles of Geomechanics
  • Discussion of sand Production risk
  • Screens

 

2

  • Sand Control Design
  • Gravel Pack Methodology

 

3

  • Sand Control at high-rates (above fracturing pressure)
  • Sand Control in Horizontal Wells
  • Equipment

 

4

  • Sand Control Water Injectors
  • In-situ Consolidation
  • Screenless Sand Control
  • Remedial Sand Control

 

5

  • Fluid Loss Control
  • Filtration
  • Sand Management
  • Quality Control
  • Job Evaluation

 

highlights

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