Introduction to Reservoir Engineering

This course will introduce participants to the basics of reservoir engineering. It will cover the role of reservoir engineers in exploration and production. Participants will also learn about fluid and rock properties used in reservoir engineering applications and the fundamental concepts of fluid flow in porous media. Multiphase situations, types of oil and gas reservoirs, reservoir drive mechanisms, the basics of material balance and decline curve analysis, and reserve definitions will also be discussed.

Other important concepts that will be covered include the reservoir life cycle, reservoir environment and formation properties, Darcy’s Law, and API correlations. By the end of the course, participants will have gained a foundational understanding of reservoir engineering that they can use while moving forward in their training.

1

Reservoir Engineering Basics 

  • Overview of Reservoir Engineering
  • Reservoir life cycle
  • Reservoir formation properties
  • Identification of fluid contacts and pressure gradients

The first day of this class will introduce students to some of the fundamentals of reservoir engineering. Participants will learn about the role of reservoir engineering in exploration and production as well as how reservoir engineers interact with other engineering disciplines. Reservoir environment and formation properties will also be discussed to include, structure and properties of rocks, porosity, permeability, compressibility, wettability, and capillary pressure. Participants will learn about the identification of contacts as well as effective and relative permeability and how to measure relative permeability. The definition of reservoir pressure and the determination of pressure gradients will also be discussed.

 2

Reservoir Conditions 

  • Fundamentals of reservoir fluids phase behavior
  • Darcy’s Law and fundamentals of fluid flow in porous media

The day will start with learning the fundamentals of fluid phase behavior . And PVT properties of crude oil and natural gas. Participants will discuss the conventional experimental procedures used to generate PVT data such as constant composition expansion and differential liberation. The day will end with participants learning about the Darcy’s law and the fundamentals of fluid flow in porous media.

3

Understanding Reservoir and its Production Capacity

  • Principles of Well Testing in reservoir characterization
  • Oil and Gas Well Inflow Performance Analysis

Day three will introduce participants to the application of diffusivity equation and the application of line source solution.  The participants will also learn about the use of well testing in determining average reservoir pressure, productivity index, permeability, and skin effect. The day will end with the participants learning inflow performance in oil and gas wells and nodal analysis.

 

4

Reservoir Drive 

  • Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
  • Principles of Material Balance Analysis
  • Immiscible displacement concepts

On day four of this course, participants will learn about reservoir drive mechanisms and the concept of a reservoir as a single tank along with a reservoir drives limitations on the use of the material balance equation.  During this day, participants will examine the water injection and the use of fractional flow equations.  Participants will also discuss the recovery factors of different drive mechanisms.

5

Reserves

  • Definition of Reserves and Volume Estimation Methods
  • Decline Curves Analysis

On the last day, participants will discuss the definition of reserves and the recovery factor – API correlation by hands on exercises on RF estimations.  During this day, estimation of oil-in-place and gas-in-place concepts will be covered.  The day will end with use of production decline curves in reserves estimations.

 

Reservoir Management and Monitoring

This course will cover the basic techniques used in modern reservoir management and reservoir monitoring.  The reservoir management process with data analysis, reservoir dynamic modeling, and production operations will be discussed.  Surface facilities, related project evaluations and economics will be covered.  The class will also cover the general aspects of reservoir monitoring and planning.

1

Reservoir Management: Processes, Concepts, and Analysis 

  • Reservoir management process
  • Concepts, sources of expertise, data acquisition, and data use
  • Cycle, integration, analysis, and modeling
  • Data Analysis, models, and Geo-Sciences Static Model

The first day of this course will focus mainly on the reservoir management process.  Participants will also learn about the concepts, sources of expertise, data acquisition and data use in respect to reservoir management.  The cycle integration, analysis and modeling of a reservoir will also be covered.  The day will end with a discussion of data analysis, models, and the Geo-Sciences Static Model.

2

Reservoir Model, Operations, and Facilities 

  • Reservoir model – Dynamics Well Model
  • Production operations
  • Surface facilities

Participants will learn about the reservoir model, specifically the dynamics well model, during the second day of this course.  Production operations and surface facilities will also be discussed.  On this day the participants will be given a group project that will be evaluated the following day.

3

Financial Management 

  • Project evaluation
  • Economics
  • Net cash flow and time value of money
  • Investment decisions
  • Project selection and revision

This day will start out with the project evaluations for the assignments from the day before.  The day will then continue with a discussion on economics, net cash flow, time value of money, and investment decisions.  Project selection and revision will also be covered.

4

Reservoir Monitoring 

  • Reservoir Surveillance
  • Pressure profiling
  • Production logging, measurements, and interpretation
  • Saturation monitoring

On this day participants will learn about reservoir monitoring.  Some topics that will be discussed include reservoir surveillance (objects, short term, and mid-term planning) and pressure profiling in the developed reservoirs.  Production logging, measurements, and interpretation will also be covered.  The day will end with a discussion on saturation monitoring.

5

Reservoir Management Application 

  • Example generic applications
    • Mature field
    • Waterflood
    • New field

The last day of this course will focus on the different aspect of reservoir management application.  Discussions will be focused on generic example applications like mature field development, waterflood development and applying reservoir management in a newly discovered field.

Well Test Design and Analysis

This course will focus on the different types of tests and techniques, both analytical and graphical, for data representation and analysis of well tests. Types of techniques covered will include diagnostic plots-derivative for draw down, and buildup tests.  Participants will learn about the interpretation of complex data, such as those from well test in naturally fractured reservoirs, hydraulically fractured wells, horizontal wells, along with gas and gas condensate reservoirs.  Each day participants will see examples of the types and techniques discussed along with practice problems.

1

Types of Test Analysis 

  • Steady state, semi-steady state, and transient well performance
  • Basic concepts for test analysis
  • Drawdown and buildup testing
  • Semilog analysis and estimating average reservoir pressure

On day one of this course participants will learn about the need for testing and the states of well performance.  The basic concepts for test analysis will also be discussed on this day.  Some concepts that will be covered include modeling radial flow and characterizing damage and stimulation.  Several types of testing will also be discussed, including drawdown testing and buildup testing.  This day will also include a discussion on semilog analysis and estimating average reservoir pressure.

2

Diagnostic and Derivative Analysis 

  • Diagnostic and derivative analysis
  • Wellbore storage and type curve matching
  • Sealing faults and stratigraphic pinchouts
  • Late time boundary and depletion effects

Participants will learn about diagnostic and derivative plots analysis on this day.  A discussion of wellbore storage and type curve matching will also be included.  Participants will be introduced to recognizing sealing faults and stratigraphic pinchouts, along with late time boundary and depletion effects on well tests plots.

3

Types of Well Testing

  • Interpretation of well test data
  • Analysis of post-fracture tests
  • Variable rate analysis methods
  • Horizontal well testing
  • Multi-well testing

This day will focus on teaching participants about the interpretation methodology of various types of well testing. The types include post-fracture tests, variable rate analysis, horizontal well testing, and multi-well testing. Participants will also learn about the interpretation of well test data in naturally fractured reservoirs.

4

Analysis Gas and Gas Condensate Reservoirs 

  • Modifications for gas wells and multiphase flow
  • Well test analysis in gas and gas condensate reservoirs
  • Pseudo-pressure and type curve analysis techniques
  • Phase redistribution

On day four of this course, participants will learn about well test analysis in gas and gas condensate reservoirs.  They will learn about modifications for gas wells and multiphase flow.  Participants will learn about pseudo-pressure and type curve analysis techniques, along with phase redistribution.

5

DST 

  • DST key features
  • DST design and analysis
  • Interference tests
  • Reservoir limit tests
  • Well test design and step-by-step procedure

The last day of the course will include a discussion on DST, its key features, design, and analysis.  Participants will learn about interference test and reservoir limit tests.  The class will end with a discussion on well test design and each participant will learn the step-by-step procedure.

Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Fundamentals

This course presents comprehensive aspects of chemical EOR processes including main reservoir description techniques, properties of used chemicals. The topics that are also covered include fractional flow theory, sampling techniques, Screening criteria for Chemical EOR processes and their economics.

Simulation of Chemical EOR methods will also be covered through demonstrative examples.

1

  • Definition
  • Different EOR Processes –Concepts, Limitations & Challenges
  • EOR Screening Criteria
  • Displacement Fundamentals of EOR

 

2

  • Sampling Tools and Techniques
  • Lab Experiments, Analysis & Fluid Characterization
  • Reservoir Engineering Applications to EOR

 

3

  • Fractional Flow Theory and Uses in Oil Recovery Calculations
  • Low Salinity Water Injection (LSW)
  • Polymer Flooding

 

4

  • Surfactant Flooding
  • Alkaline Flooding
  • ASP Fundamentals
  • Determination of Residual Oil Saturation Using Chemical Tracers
  • Chemical EOR Economics

 

5

  • Fundamentals of Reservoir Simulation
  • Simulation of
    • Polymer Flooding
    • Surfactant Flooding
    • ASP Process
    • Low Salinity Water Injection

 

Fundamentals of Field Development Planning

This Field Development Planning course provides participants with an opportunity to learn the fundamental approach for working and writing a Field Development Plan.  The plan is a document that is an output of a sequence of decision and discipline based tasks designed to come up with a development plan.  It is, also, a basis for coming up with a robust way of developing, producing, and maintaining hydrocarbon resources.  A Field Development Plan forms an input for designing associated surface facilities. Combined documents, both subsurface and surface, form the basis for the financial decision.

The participants will be introduced to all of these concepts as they are applied to the process of coming up with a development plan in relation to the reservoir life cycle.  This course will acquaint engineers, geoscientists, and operating personnel with the basic techniques used by asset management teams. 

1

FDP Overview

  • Reservoir Management Concepts and Processes
  • Integrated Reservoir Study - People and Skills
  • Essentials of Robust FDP
    • Field Development Options
    • Project Stakeholders
    • Risk Management Process
    • Risk Register
  • Field Development Planning Template

On the first day, participants will learn the phases of a reservoir life cycle, the reservoir management process and concepts, team structure in integrated reservoir studies.  Essentials of robust FDP will also be discussed. The day will end with a discussion on the Field Development Planning Template.                

2

Reservoir Model – Static

  • Integrated Field Planning: Key Elements
  • Structural Framework
  • Facies Modeling - Depositional Systems
  • Property Modeling – Petrophysics
  • Property Modeling – Geophysics
  • Elements of Static Model Building   

Day two of this course will focus on the Static Reservoir Model. Participants will learn about the key elements of an integrated field planning. Elementys of Static Model Building will also be discussed.

3

Reservoir Model – Dynamic

  • Dynamic Model – Upscaling
  • Dynamic Model – Initialization
  • Dynamic Model – Building
  • Dynamic Model – Calibrating
  • Predicting Performance
  • Example Development Scenarios

Day three will focus on the Dynamic Reservoir Modeling.  Specifically, on this day, participants will learn how predicting performance by dynamic model helps robust filed development planning.

4

Facilities, Economics and Optimization

  • Surface Facilities
  • Development Plan Optimization
  • Project Ranking
  • Expected Value and Value of Perfect Information

On day four, participants will learn the importance of surface facilities in field development planning.  Economical analysis and optimization of development scenarios, project ranking will also be discussed.  The ay will end with learning the expected value and value of perfect information.

5

Development Examples – New Field , Mature Field, Waterflood

  • Field Development at Different Stages of Reservoir Life Cycle 
    • Appraisal
    • Developing
    • Producing
    • Monitoring Production
    • Phases of Production
    • IOR/EOR
  • FDP Examples
    • New Filed
    • Mature Field
    • Waterflooding

The last day of the course will continue with the review of Field Development Plan concepts.  Participants will also learn about the reservoir appraisal and development planning.  The day will end with generic examples of field developments.

Waterflood Management

This course will cover waterflooding and the distribution of immiscible fluids in a reservoir.  During this course, participants will also learn about the process of immiscible displacement in a reservoir along with the waterflood pattern options and its effects on the selection and orientation of flood performance.  Other concepts that will be covered include the prediction of waterflood performance by the application of classical waterflood predictions.  Analytical techniques and linear fractional flow theory will be discussed.  Participants will also be able to see a simulation of waterflooding.

1

Introduction to Waterflooding 

  • General waterflooding
  • Effects of drive mechanisms

Day one will focus on presenting the participants to waterflooding and helping them gain a general understanding of the subject.  Effects of drive mechanisms on waterflooding will also be covered on this day.

2

Performance and Processes of Waterflooding 

  • Rock properties and waterflooding
  • Drainage process
  • Capillary pressure
  • Production performance

On this day participants will learn about rock properties and what effect they can have on waterflooding.  They will also learn about the drainage process and capillary pressure.  Production performance in the understanding of reservoir and well behavior by studying produced fluid ratios (WOR, GOR, GLR) will also be covered.

 

3

Flow Theory and Analysis Methods 

  • Displacement processes and linear fractional flow theory
  • Analytical Methods
  • Analysis of waterflood pattern mobility ratio
  • Pattern configurations
  • Waterflood performance efficiencies and predictions

Day three of this course will introduce participants to displacement processes and the linear fractional flow theory.  Analytical methods such as Buckley-Leverett frontal advance model and Weldge prediction method will be covered.  Analysis of the waterflood pattern mobility ratio and pattern configuration will also be discussed.  The class will end with participants learning about the waterflood performance efficiencies and predictions.

4

Analytical and Prediction Methods

  • Analytical methods
  • Prediction methods

Day four will continue the discussion on analytical and prediction methods.  Stiles, Craig-Geffen-Morse, and Dykstra-Parsons are a few methods that will be covered on this day.

 

5

Simulations and Field Examples 

  • Simulation of waterflooding and practical guidelines for reservoir simulators
  • Simulation of waterflooding using small and large scale models for calibration
  • Waterflooding field examples

The last day of this course will include simulations of two types of waterflooding, reservoir simulator and small/large scale models for calibration.  The course will end with several waterflooding field examples. 

Resources and Reserves Evaluation

This course will discuss SPE PRMS guidelines. SEC regulations will also be summarized by comparing important definitions with PRMS. Resources classification and categorization will be given on a framework along with a guideline for the application of these definitions.

The course will update G&G and reservoir engineers with the current deterministic and probabilistic reserves  estimation methods.

1

Resources and Reserves

  • Introduction
  • Overview of Resource Classification System in view of SPE PRMS latest guidelines
  • Deterministic Reserves Estimation Methods
    • Analogy
    • Volumetric
    • Recovery Factors

Day one of this course will begin with an introduction and a basic overview of Resource Classification System in view of SPE PRMS latest guidelines.  Participants will lstart discussing the traditional reserves estimation methods; analogy and volumetric methods will be covered in day 1.

2

Reserves Estimation and Link to Project Economics

  • Deterministic Reserves Estimation Methods (continued)
    • Material Balance Analysis
    • Classical Decline Curve Analysis
    • Advanced Decline Curve Analysis
  • Reserves: Link to Project Economics and Valuation

On this day participants will continue discussing the reserves estimation methods.  Material Balance Analysis and Decline Curve Analysis will be covered in day 2. The participants will also learn how project economics are linked to reserves.

3

Deterministic Field Example

  • Deterministic Analysis on an Example Field
  • Basics of Descriptive Statistics

On day 3 participants will go through deterministic resource and reserves analysis and estimation on an example field. Basics of descriptive statististics will also be covered.

4

Statistics, Probability, and Uncertainty 

  • Basic Probability and Operations with Probabilities
  • Probability Distributions
  • Expected value
  • Probailistic Reserves Estimation

On this day participants will learn about probability and uncertainty that are associated with reserves.  Day four will also cover the expected value of a reserve and the decision tree.

5

Probabilistic Reserve Estimation 

  • Probabilistic Reserves Estimation (continued)
  • Monte Carlo Simulation

The last day of the course will cover simulation and probabilistic reserve estimations. 

 

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