Advanced Formation Evaluation in Carbonates

The focus of this course will be advanced formation evaluation and interpretation in carbonates.  A strong emphasis will be placed on pore geometry and evaluating the parameters that effect carbonates such as “m”, “n”, and microporosity.  This course includes 1-2 hours daily of workshop examples that will help participants with their future work in carbonates reservoir environments.

Participants will learn about the geology of carbonates and the principles and effects of dolomitization.  The physics and application of a select number of logging tools with special application for carbonates interpretations will be covered.  Specific tools that will be covered during the duration of this course include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging, NMR scanner, acoustic measurements, acoustic scanner imaging, and borehole imaging to quantify vugs and fractures.  Participants will also learn about pore geometry and flow units, including capillary pressure measurements, J-Factor applications, and petro-rock typing. 


Carbonate Geology and Dolomitization

  • Carbonate Geology and deposition
  • Dolomitization
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance and NMR-Scanner
  • Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner

Day one will cover carbonate geology and overview of diagenesis.  Participants will learn about deposition, nuclear magnetic resonance, and NMR-Scanner.  Acoustic measurements and the acoustic scanner will also be covered.


Logging and Formation Applications

  • Borehole imaging using micro-resistivity and ultrasonic imaging
  • Physics of neutron logging using pulsed neutron to give a sigma log
  • The physics of dielectric logging and the dielectric scanner
  • Variable-M and the formation factor applications

The second day will focus on logging and formation applications.  Borehole imaging using micro-resistivity and ultrasonic imaging will be covered.  Participants will also learn about the physics of neutron logging using pulsed neutron to give a sigma log.  They day will end with participants learning about the physics of dielectric logging, the dielectric scanner, variable-M, and the formation factor applications.


Wettability, Vugs, and Dual Porosity

  • Wettability and the variable-N
  • Effect of Vugs and fractures on resistivity measurements
  • Dual Porosity: MacroPorosity and MicroPorosity: Quantitative evaluation of the dual porosity in carbonates

Wettability, vugs, and dual porosity will be the main focuses on the third day.  Participants will get the chance to learn about wettability and the variable-N, as well as the effects of vugs and fractures on resistivity measurements.  Dual porosity, Macro-porosity, and micro-porosity, and the quantitative evaluation of the dual porosity in carbonates.


Permeability Estimations and Flow Units

  • Permeability estimations in carbonates
  • Connectivity Theory: a new approach for interpretations in carbonates without the use of the Archie Equation
  • Flow units and the Lorenz plots

Day four will teach participants about permeability estimation in carbonates.  The Connectivity Theory, a new approach for interpreting carbonates without the use of the Archie, will also be discussed.  The day will end with discussions over flow units and the Lorenz plots.


Capillary Pressure and Rock Types

  • Capillary pressure from core analysis 
  • Capillary pressure from the NMT T2 conversion
  • J-Function
  • Rock types: Winland and the ADNOC Pore Model

The last day will cover capillary pressure from core analysis and the NMT T2 conversion.  Participants will also learn about the J-Function and several different rock types, as well as Winland and the ADNOC function.

Fractured Reservoir Characterisation with Emphasis on Carbonates

Fractured reservoirs such as tight carbonates and basements set complex challenges to appraisal and development teams due to their high degree of heterogeneity and hard-to-predict reservoir quality. A multi-disciplinary approach that draws on sedimentology, diagenesis, structural geology, rock mechanics and reservoir engineering techniques has to be applied.

This course provides geologists and reservoir engineers with the essential knowledge needed in the real-world business context where management of risk and reduction of uncertainties is important. The objective is to present the key technical issues in geology, geomechanics and engineering and illuminate the range of tools and techniques available to tackle them (along with their limitations). A constant theme is to illustrate these issues with case histories from the industry.

The course is intended to be interactive in that delegates are encouraged to participate in discussions so that key points are openly scrutinised.

A constant theme of the course is to apply ‘first principles’ from geological science to the results generated by reservoir characterisation tools, techniques and modelling softwares. With due attention to these principles the technical and commercial risks associated with fractured reservoir hydrocarbon developments can be mitigated.


  • Issues, Challenges, Geology Basics
    • o Overview of Key Characteristics and Issues in Fractured Reservoirs
    • o Structural Geology and Rock Mechanics for Fractured Reservoir Characterisation

Day 1 will give delegates much of the foundation knowledge critical to understanding the challenges associated with fractured reservoirs and addressing their solutions. We will make a start on the essential technical knowledge in geology and geomechanics.


  • Geology Basics, Data and Techniques
    • o Structural Geology and Rock Mechanics for Fractured Reservoir Characterisation
    • o Data Sources and Appraisal Techniques for Fractured Reservoir Characterisation

Day 2 will complete the essential technical knowledge in geology and geomechanics and then address the range of data sources and appraisal techniques available, mainly at well-scale but also covering reservoir scale methods such as seismic attributes. This will be a critical look at their relative merits so that delegates acquire an appreciation of their usefulness.


  • Modelling, Case Histories, and Drilling
    • o Fractured Reservoir Modelling and Case Histories
    • o Geomechanics and Drilling Issues in Fractured Reservoirs
    • o Re-Cap and Wrap-Up Discussion Session


Day 3 focuses on the reservoir scale methods associated with upscaling and construction of reservoir models for simulations, reserve assessments, and field development planning. We then review geomechanics applications and drilling-related issues such as wellbore stability in fractured formations. 

Applied Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy

This course focuses on Carbonate Sequence Stratigraphy with particular emphasis to practical application in Oil & Gas Exploration and Development.



  • Why carbonates are important to the oil industry
  • Why carbonates differ from siliciclastics
  • Basic controls on carbonate sedimentation and mixed clastic-carbonate systems
  • Carbonate systems and platform-types – basic facies patterns
  • Evolutionary controls on carbonate depositional systems through the Tertiary.
  • Introduction to sequence stratigraphy of carbonate systems
  • Case studies: examples of different types of carbonate reservoirs



  • Sequence stratigraphy vs lithostratigraphy
  • Carbonate response to relative sea-level change – RST, LST, TST, HST systems
  • Tectonic influences
  • Controls on relative sea-level change
  • Climatic influences - Icehouse/greenhouse climates
  • Principles of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and cyclicity in carbonates, concepts of stacking patterns, Fischer plots
  • Seismic recognition of carbonate systems
  • Seismic sequence stratigraphy of carbonates
  • Seismic geometry and geomorphology of carbonate systems

Day 3

  • Interpretation of carbonate sequences from wireline logs – including FMI logs
  • Diagenetic processes & models
  • Diagenetic techniques and applications of diagenetic studies in reservoir description.
  • Diagenesis exercise



  • Carbonate micropore systems
  • Carbonate matrix pore systems
  • Carbonate macropore systems - karst, brecciated and fracture systems.
  • Controls on the layering of pore systems in carbonates
  • Porosity-permeability exercise
  • Principles of geomodelling of carbonate reservoirs.
  • Objectives and work flows for describing carbonate reservoirs
  • Flow units in carbonate reservoirs



  • Conceptual geological models
  • Selection of appropriate analogue models for carbonate reservoirs - modern carbonate systems; dimensions of carbonate bodies
  • Heterogeneities of carbonate systems; scale and origin
  • Role of outcrop studies in reservoir geomodelling
  • Porosity and permeability modelling – pore typing and defining flow units
  • Petrophysical modelling of carbonates
  • Summary


Characterization, Evaluation and Enhanced Oil Recovery in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Natural fractures are increasingly recognized as dominant permeability paths in many reservoirs. Unfortunately, there are few guidelines available for geologists and engineers characterizing and engineering naturally fractured reservoirs. This course is intended as an up-to-date summary of an integrated reservoir study including characterization, experimentation and integration of information in determining the most suitable process option in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of the information originates from the on-going CO2 pilot in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. Information presented from this project in this short course include: core results from several wells including a horizontal core; measurement of fracture populations and spacings from core data; investigation of diagenesis in natural fractures; evaluation of fracture detection logs; detailed study of matrix porosity; evaluation of shaly-sand algorithms for calculation of net pay; measurement of in-situ oil saturation with sponge cores; laboratory measurement of imbibition, capillary pressure and wettability at reservoir conditions, history matching laboratory measurements for up-scaling to reservoir geometry, wettability data for prediction of waterflood performance; reservoir performance analysis during water injection, and laboratory experiments of forced and free-fall gravity drainage with CO2 and use of commercial simulators to match reservoir performance using precisely measured lab and field data.

Two other important case histories’ are also presented. The Midale CO2 flood conducted by Shell Canada is a successful CO2 pilot in a naturally fractured carbonate. A comprehensive data set is presented which clearly demonstrates the role of fracture and matrix characterization, pulse and tracer testing, and laboratory experimentation in development of an adequate history match of waterflooding in order to predict full field performance of the CO2 flood. Geology and fracture characterization is presented along with performance of water injection, effects of rock wettability, gravitational effects, tracer and pulse testing and a complete review of the CO2 pilot is reviewed.

Finally, a case history of a 15 year old gravity stable CO2 pilot in West Texas is reviewed. The Wellman Unit CO2 flood has been one of the more successful CO2 floods on record and the naturally fractured/vugular system of porosity plays an important role in reservoir performance.

We will review reservoir performance in this outstanding project focusing on efficient operation of gravity stable CO2 injection into the top of a carbonate structure


 Characterization of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.

  • Geological and petrophysical analysis of reservoir cores.


Screening reservoir data for waterflood and gas injection candidates.

  • Core-log integration, reservoir characterization.
  • Development of specific algorithms for log evaluation (identification of pay zones and water saturation in the pay)
  • Fracture identification (natural or coring induced) and characterization.


Well test analysis and analysis of inflow performance of horizontal wells.

  • Imbibition, capillary pressure, interfacial tension and wettability determination.
  • Scaling laboratory results to predict waterflood response.


Numerical simulation of waterflooding Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.

  • Phase behavior and Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) determination.
  • Gas injection experiments in fractured systems (whole core at reservoir conditions).


Evaluation, scaling and design of gas injection results for implementation of projects in naturally fractured systems.

  • Case history review of Midale CO2 Pilot and Wellman Unit CO2 Flood



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