Super User Practical AVO and Seismic Inversion with Petrel A profitable development of an oil or gas field starts with a good understanding of the subsurface as a basis for efficient and successful field management. The integration of AVO and inversion techniques in Quantitative Interpretation helps to create the best possible petrophysics subsurface model. Improved discrimination of reservoir units are made and models are generated using logs and seismic data. These techniques lead to highly accurate or highly probable (static) subsurface models compatible (if correctly up-scaled) to dynamic reservoir models obtained from reservoir engineering measurements and computations. The correct use of seismic attributes, well data analysis, AVO and seismic inversion is essential to establish subsurface models that can be used for improved field development planning and design. Learning, methods and tools: This course has Petrel exercises to reinforce learning At the end of the course participants will understand basic concepts in quantitative seismic analysis and interpretation based on AVO, well-to-seismic calibration and inversion techniques. Participants will consolidate their understanding of modern technology with recent field study examples and practical workshop exercises. 1 Introduction Basic Concepte Seismic Processing for AVO and inversion Exercise - Pre-stack Seismic Interpretation Exercise - Angle stack creation Exercise - Non-Rigid Matching 2 AVO Theory AVO Classificationsand DHI's Exercise - AVO Forward Modeling Practical applications of AVO analysis – fluid factor, intercept and gradient etc. Exercise - AVO Attributes 3 Inversion Theory and Methods Exercise - Post-stack inversion Well to seismic ties and wavelets Exercise - Seismic Well Tie 4 Low frequency model building Exercise - Low frequency model building Practical applications of seismic inversion - including lithology discrimination and rock physics inversion. Exercise - Pre-stack seismic inversion 5 4D and 3C Inversion Exercise - Using Inversion Results Stochastic Inversion Latest Developments - joint EM-Seismiic Inversion, AVAZ, Zoeppritz Inversion Global Tectonics and Geological Prospecting Tools for Exploration This hands-on 5-day course utilizes lectures and practical exercises to introduce key concepts of an effective petroleum system with emphasis on global tectonics and how basins are formed, filled and deformed, and on learning key geologic prospecting tools for exploration. The Atlantic Margin basin is used as an example to discuss the elements of the petroleum system. Clastic rocks are emphasized (especially turbidites) but carbonate rocks and evaporite formation is also reviewed. Discussions include introduction of key aspects of source rock, migration, overburden rock, reservoir characteristics including porosity, permeability and architecture, seal rock characteristics, structural and stratigraphic traps, timing and preservation elements. Prospecting Tools covered in this course include petrophysics for exploration geoscientists , bio- and sequence stratigraphic applications, essential log correlation workflow and log annotation methods, data contouring and mapping, applications of multiple working hypotheses, and utilization of direct hydrocarbon indicators to exploration. Students correlate various logs that illustrate faulted sections and straitigraphic variation, and create contour maps and learn to properly present faults in map view. 1 Objectives and Overview of Module and Course Five Laws of Geology: Uniformitarianism, Superposition, Original Horizontality, Cross Cutting Relationships, and Walther's Law Petroleum Systems – components, definitions, and assessment Basin Formation Plate Tectonics and the Wilson Cycle Source Rocks in Conventional and Unconventional Petroleum Systems Basin Filling – clastics Carbonates and Dolomitization Clastic Depositional Models - Fluvial 2 Clastic Depositional Models – Delta and Deepwater Turbidite Walthers Law Faulting as migration pathways and/or seals Review of Fault Types Hydrocarbon Traps - Good and Bad Salt Deformation Review of exploration in Salt Basins Sutures and Inclusions Rubble Zones and Imaging below Salt 3 Petrophysics for Exploration Rock and Fluid Properties Porosity and Permeability Pressure and Compaction Compartmentalization Tool Applications Biostratigraphy and Sequence Stratigraphy Accomodation Space Stratigraphic Sequences HST, FSST, LST, TST Carbonate vs Clastic Sequence Stratigraphy Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy 4 Log Correlation Purpose and Methods Correlations for Structure Geological Scenarios for correlation What to Correlate? Log Headers Facies Correlation and accounting for Faults Using Seismic to aid correlation 5 Mapping and Contouring – Definitions and Principles Creation of various types of contour map Multiple working hypotheses Contouring with Faults Isopach Maps DHI Concepts for Exploration Seismic interpretation and Anomolies Gas Effects and Bright Spots Prospecting with DHI's 4D Seismic and Electromagnetic Data Economics of Petroleum Exploration Participants will learn how to take hydrocarbon volumes and risks and apply a structured decision analysis process to them. The portfolio optimization process will also be discussed in order to help participants understand how to select the “best” exploration projects. The comparison of exploration projects under different fiscal regimes will be presented by incorporating discounted cash flow and net present value. The basics of decision analysis for exploration will be reviewed using sensitivities, decision trees, expected monetary value, and the value of information. 1 The Business of Exploration Why companies explore The value chain in the E&P industry Justification for exploration How a company’s vision, mission, and strategy drive exploration Participants will learn why companies explore and what metrics are used to measure the success of an exploration program. The justification of exploration projects will be discussed. How a company's vision, mission, and strategy drive exploration and other parts of the E&P business will also be presented and discussed. 2 Impact of Worldwide Fiscal Regimes on Exploration Overview of worldwide fiscal regimes Impact of fiscal regime on exploration Comparing projects under difference fiscal regimes The main types and elements of fiscal regimes around the world will be presented. Participants will learn to build cash flows for concessionary systems and simple production sharing contracts. Different types of service agreements will be reviewed, then investments under different fiscal regimes will be compared. 3 Project Economics The role of project economics Calculating cash flow Economic indicators Net present value The participants will receive an overview of petroleum economics, including an introduction to basic cash flow and net present value. A review of time value of money concepts and cash flow basics will also be presented. Common economic indicators and project selection fundamentals will be discussed. 4 Decision Analysis Sensitivity analysis Decision trees Expected monetary value Value of Information Participants will gain an overview of important concepts and examples of decision analysis. The uncertainties, risk, and various ways of incorporating them in the oil and gas project evaluations will be discussed. The use of a proven decision analysis process including sensitivities, decision trees, and the value of information in both deterministic and probabilistic approaches to evaluating oil and gas projects will be the key concepts covered. 5 Portfolio Analysis Portfolio analysis Exploration strategies in portfolio management Bringing it all together, from play ranking to EMV Participants will learn about portfolio level analysis and why it is especially important for companies involved in exploration. Also, portfolio management strategies involving exploration will be discussed. Finally, participants will work a comprehensive problem to determine play ranking in their portfolio. Mapping the Subsurface The context of this course will take the student through the primary techniques of construction of 2D (two dimensional) maps and sections of the subsurface, including integration well data and key surfaces defining the framework of geologic units in the subsurface as the foundation of subsurface evaluation. These initial 2D techniques allow the interpreter to display the 3D (three dimensional) relationships of geologic surfaces and any associated faults which are the key to defining the spatial and volumetric aspects of the associated subsurface resource. The geologic surface and fault relationships analyzed in this course will also be linked to the overall aspects of depositional settings and structural styles that are present within global development of geologic terrains. As part an integrated cross-discipline subsurface evaluation team geologists, geophysicists, petroleum engineers and drillers will utilize the techniques presented in this course to interpret subsurface data and provide geological models that form the basis for development planning and resource optimization. This course is primarily in two sections. The first section is over 3 days of analysis of traditional 2D mapping techniques. The second section extends the traditional 2D hand drawn techniques into a 2 day presentation of computer mapping processes. 1 Introduction Course Objectives, History and Principles of Surface Mapping Across Structural Styles Data Quality Issues and Impacts on Mapping Contouring Rules and Techniques, Manual vs. Computer Processes there Pluses and Minuses Gridding Algorithms and Data-specific Mapping Evaluation: Comparison and Analysis of Gridding Technique results 2 Wellbore Correlation of Vertical and Directional Drilling Data to Subsurface Feature Mapping Hands on Mapping Exercises 3 Fault Surface Mapping and contouring Techniques Rules and Techniques for Integrating Fault and Surface Maps Hands on Mapping Exercises Application of Fault and Surface Mapping Techniques to Structural Styles: Strike-Slip, Growth, Compressional, and Thrust Balanced Cross Sections and Surface Mapping Reconstruction 4 Petrel Mapping Introduction – Computer Hands on Volumetric Calculation from Surface Mapping techniques 5 Final computer contouring techniques Paper Team Exercise in mapping from well correlations, tops, surfaces and fault. Conclusion team presentation of results.